JUser: :_load: Unable to load user with ID: 841



1. Mythical Origin

The legendary origin of the indigenous people of Buguias began with a creation folktale. Kabunyan, the Almighty God,brought into existence the first couple, Bangan and Bugan, after the great flood. The couple lived in Mount Kalawitan, the highest mountain north of Benguet. From the mountain, the couple’s descendants came down. Some followed the Chico River downstream and settled in the northwest, at Gonogon and Bontoc. Others made their way south to Ahin, Tococan, Ambanglo, Tinoc, Awa, Palatang, Baugan, Amlimay, Man-atong, Bogey-yas, Tanggawan, Labay, Amgaleyguey, and Togtogyon (Loo) while still others went farther south to Embusey, Batan, Kabayan, and Bokod. The rest went westward to Mankayan, Bakun, and Kibungan, and from thence to Kapangan.

Other folktales are appended as Annex III-A of this chapter. The tales included the legend of Tugtugaka, a Nabalicong warrior, and Cuyapon, a beautiful fairy, who fell in love with each other and had begotten Anno. Anno’s generation flourished and peopled many villages far and wide from Benguet to Ifugao and Vizcaya. The Agno River was named after him. Another tale involved Gatan who came to earth as the representative of Lumawig (God) in order to teach, lead and protect humans. The other folktales related to “Biyew,” the source of all prayers; and the origin of mountains, lowlands, earthquakes and lightning, the story Samiklay, The first Rice in Loo Valley, The antique Jar of Buguias, The Bellian Dance, and The famous Tiking Agindang. The Annex included descriptions of rituals involved in the “Family Life Cycle” and “Death.”

2. Oral Traditions: Origin of Settlers

Oral tradition stated that the first settlers that peopled Buguias were descendants of Talgen who lived in Ambanglo, east of Bot-oan, in the 13th century. Talgen had eight (8) sons who all left in search of greener pastures. Odan, the eldest, went to Hapaw (now in Kiangan, Ifugao). The second son, Baglaw, a hunter and trader, roamed around the place and finally settled in Mangkew, at the southern part of Buguias. Mantac the third son traveled all the way to Lubon (now in Tadian, Mountain Province). Kitongan the fourth son went to Tad-ew and farmed at the mountain now known as Mount Kitongan, above Loo Valley; the fifth son, Malawmaw, settled at Sanil (Tococan). The trader Belka, sixth in the line, migrated to Bauko (now in Mountain Province) while Padyog, the seventh brother settled at Embusey (now Lutak). Capsola, the youngest, went to Benalian (now in Nueva Vizcaya).

Baglaw, Kitongan, Malawmaw and their descendants, thus, were the earliest known ancestors of the natives of the municipality. In the later part of the century, some of them gathered and settled at Patlatang and Baugan at the northern part of Buguias, where they raised vegetables and domesticated animals. They also cooked asin (salt), which they bartered in other places. They worshipped Kabunyan as God and Creator, and performed the sida (or cañao), caon (wedding), pidet/pudan and other festive rituals to invoke his blessings and graces. Among the present descendants of Kitongan are Posnget Dayawen and Pio Toyaoan of Loo.

Another oral account had it that the Buguias forebears were the early pagan Malay settlers in the Philippines who landed in the Lingayen Gulf, Pangasinan, but were driven into the hinterlands by the second wave of Malay settlers with superior arms. The people moved upward from Lingayen, following the Agno River towards the mountains and reached a place good for hunting and raising animals and crops; there, they established their abode. Others moved on to Tinoc, Ahin, Hungduan, Hapao and other parts of Ifugao – only to come back at the start of the 15th century.

There is an “unwritten” genealogy that most settlers in Buguias traced their roots to Ifugao Province. There was once a couple named Lumawig and Bangan who resided in the eastern part of the mountains that is now Ifugao. Their descendants were hunters who came to Buguias. They were Taak, Tuwaok, Agmaliw, Dagol, Balaigan and Mayengmeng, who by intermarriage became the early settlers of Buguias particularly at Gueoeng, Amlimay, Sebang, Poblacion and Loo. (It is noted that the names of these first settlers are still used by the present generation of Buguias). As they grew in number, others migrated to other places of Benguet because of a leprosy epidemic (“bulutong”). Another cause of migration was the “bongkilaw” a strange sound (like a funeral hymn) at night, which caused fear among the settlers.

If there are many Kankana-ey speaking tribes outside Buguias (i.e., in Benguet), they were believed to be blood relations who left Buguias, particularly tracing their roots in Amlimay. On the other hand, though the Kankanaeys originally peopled Buguias, social contact, migration, and trade have transformed the Buguias into a melting pot of ethnicities, languages, and customs.


  Original Names [Click to Read] Culture and Dialects [Click to Read]

In his book, “History of Buguias” (1979), Pedro Bestre stated that generally, the Indigenous People of Buguias are Kankanaey speaking. Nonetheless, the residents came from three (3) major culture groups. The Kalanguya speaking people dominate the barrios of Catlobong and Amlimay. On the other hand, the Ibalois inhabited Kabuguiasan. The Kankanaeys peopled the rest of the barrios: Baculongan, Calamagan, Abatan, Bangao, Loo, Buyacaoan, Amgaleyguey and Natubleng. A fourth culture group, although less significant and pronounced as the major groups, can be found in the heart of the municipality – Poblacion – where the dialect known as Mandec–ey predominates. This dialect carries the combination of the three major dialects, hence the residents of Poblacion can understand and can even speak any of the three other languages.

In 1978, of the total population of Buguias was 17,068, about 75% are Kankanaey, 15% Kalanguya and some 10% Ibaloi. Geographically, Kalanguya dialect is situated in the eastern part of the municipality, in the south is Ibaloi, while Kankanaey is North West and North east near eastern part of Mt. Province.


 1. Socio-Political Development

[Click to Read]

 2.Cultural and Religious Development

[Click to Read]

 3. Education and Acculturation

[Click to Read]


1. Customs and Beliefs Regarding the Agricultural Cycle

[Click to Read]

2. Vegetable Farming and Trading

[Click to Read]

3. Merchandise Trading

[Click to Read]

4. Non-Traditional Events and Trends

[Click to Read]


1. Land Use

[Click to Read]

2. Management Systems

[Click to Read]


 1. Land Ownership

[Click to Read]

 2. Inheritance (Tawid)

[Click to Read]

 3. Transfer of Ownership

[Click to Read]


 The Forest in the Domain

[Click to Read]

  Forest Management

[Click to Read]

 Communal Forest

[Click to Read]

Present Condition of the Forest

[Click to Read]

Suggestions for Forest Preservation and Maintenance

[Click to Read]


 Wells and Irrigation Systems

[Click to Read]

 Fishing and Marine-Related Practices 

[Click to Read]



Ailment is one great concern of the early Buguias people and they resorted to what the forest could offer and what they could raise. Buguias forest produces many edible and medicinal products such as: Degway, Lusong, ayyosip, bissolak, uyok, betnek, lalateng, Edible fungi, Lumsek, (used to kill flea, adalan, buo, gato, kombab, tablew, tameyyan) Wild animals, honey bees wild fowl, etc.

Some indigenous health care practices were dismissed to be without therapeutic effects, others are scientifically proven to have curative effects. The Table provides a list of herbal plants, used as folk ailment remedies handed from generation to generation.

Existing Herbal Plants

Plants Uses Process
Pandan Leaves For cleaning urinary track cleansing. Chop and boil fresh leaves. Drink
Corn Hair For inflammation of the gall bladder. Chop and boil young hair. Drink
Balanggoy (lemon grass) Feet fungal infection cleansing, for cleaning urinary track cleansing. Chop leaves and extract roots. Apply liberally on foot. For internal ailments, boil leaves and drink.
Gaun or cogon grass Stomach ailment especially diarrhea. Chop fresh roots and boil. Drink
Makahiya (bain-bain) Stomach ailment especially diarrhea Chop fresh leaves. Boil and drink.
Kamoting Kahoy Skin rashes and measles Peel covering and grate the tuber. Extract the juice and may be applied as hot bath.
Balite bark For kidney problems and for skin eruption. Foil chopped bark. For kidney problem, drink. For skin problem, apply on surface.
Gipas Urinary tract infection. Boil leaves and drink as tea
Beltek leaves Urinary tract infection Boil leaves and drink as tea
Sepal (leaves and seeds) Stomachache, diarrhea and fever. Crush, boils leave or seeds and drink.
Pedped leaves Wound antiseptic Crush leaves and apply on wound.
Lusong leaves For skin inflammation Crush leaves and apply on wound
Dengaw For stomach ache, headache, body pain, fever Crush roots and stem. Apply liberally.
Popoted Stomach ache, urinary tract infection, body pain Boil stem
Pangototen Stomach pain Boil leaves, drink
Dael (leaves and seeds) Stomach ache, sore throat Boil seeds or leaves, drink
Appisang Stomach ache, sore throat Boil seeds or leaves, drink
Tagumbaw Bruises and sprain Boil bark and drink
Kalidos Insect repellant and skin disease Crush leaves and apply on skin
Polet leaves Skin disease and leaves Crush leaves and apply on surface
Kakaag Skin disease and leaves Crush leaves and apply on surface
Subusob leaves Kidney trouble Boil leaves and drink
Panawel leaves Disinfectant Boil and crush leaves, apply on wound.
Suyak stem Wound blood clotting Crush stem and apply on wound
Alam-am leaves Open wounds disinfectant Crush leaves and apply on wound
Sasab-eng Fever Boil leaves and drink
Bengbengsit For wounds Crush leaves and apply on wound.


  The Legend of Apo Anno

[Click to Read]

 Origin of “Biyew” (Prayer)

[Click to Read]

 The Legend of Gatan

[Click to Read]

The Origin of Lowlands, Mountains, Earthquakes and Lightning

[Click to Read]


[Click to Read]


[Click to Read]


[Click To Read]


[Click to Read]


[Click to Read]

  Customs and Beliefs Associated with the Family Life Cycle

[Click to Read]

 Customs and Traditions Associated with Death

[Click to Read]

Few now practice these otherwise elaborate and expensive rituals. Factors such as the entry of Christianity, education, practicality, etc. have contributed in its disappearance. Others, who still cling to their animistic traditions have adopted Christian burial but perform rituals selected from the above-mentioned rituals. 

List of Buguias Executive Officers, 1900 – 2005

From To        
Nov. 22 1900 1902 Alingbas (Loo) Appointed    
1902 1904 Velasco (Buguias) Appointed    
1905 1908 Punasen Longbas Appointed    
1908 1910 Baldaen Lobyado Elected Alingbas Elected
1911 1912 Danggol Cubangay Elected Palbusa Elected
1912 1914 L. Senachey Elected Bab-ngo-o Elected
1915 1916 Docayso Montes Elected L. Albon Elected
1917 1918 Butag Ligmayo Elected S. Tayab Ateniao Elected
1919 1920 Ta-ao Mayol Elected B. Palbusa Elected
1920 1921 Anong Baldasan Elected Asipan Bigo Elected
1922 1923 Docayso Montes Elected Dayaoen Leces Elected
1924 1926 Anong Baldasan Elected Kini Balaoen Elected
1927 1929 Paetan Bay-an Elected Abol Domalos Elected
1930 1932 Butag Ligmayo Elected Picod Patian Elected
1933 1935 Berto Cubangay Elected Ludaes Piscao Elected
1936 1937 Calayon Igualdo Elected    
1938 1940 Galap Almora Elected Juan Wakit Elected
1941 Nov. 1942 Berto Cubangay Appointed    
Dec. 1942 Jan. 1943 Ben Almora Appointed    
Feb 1943 April 1943 Julian Calion Appointed    
May 1943 Dec. 1944 Jacinto Olsim Appointed    
Jan. 1945 Aug. 1945 Butag Ligmayo Appointed    
Sept. 1945 Dec. 1945 Gavino Bay-an (Military Mayor) Appointed    
E. POST WAR        
1946 1949 Butag Ligmayo Elected Avelino Olsim Elected
1950 1951 Pingay Pulsingay Elected Lobesto Alawas Elected
1951 1952 Lobesto Alawas Appointed Pio Toyaoan Appointed
1953 1956 Pio Toyaoan Elected Mariano Cobcobo Elected
1956 1959 Mariano Cobcobo Elected Pacalso Payagen Elected
1960 1963 Julian Calion Elected Johnson Montes Elected
1964 1967 Gavino Bay-an Elected Hilary Camas Elected
1968 1971 Juanito Bacquian Elected Camilo Atas Elected
1972 1976 Tomas Yap Elected Robert Tinda-an Elected
1977 1980 Robert Tindaan Appointed    
1981 1986 Robert Tindaan Elected Pedro Agayao Elected
1986 1987 Antonio Abyado OIC Camilo Atas OIC
1987 March 1988 Camilo Atas Appointed Apolinario T. Camsol Appointed
April 1988 June 1992 Stafin Olsim Elected Daoines Awal Elected
July 1992 June 1995 Apolinario T Camsol Elected Paul Gabriel Elected
July 1995 June 1998 Apolinario T. Camsol Elected Jacinto Maliones Elected
July 1998 June 2001 Domingo B. Bay-an Elected Manuel Og-oget Elected
July 2001 June 2004 Apolinario T. Camsol Elected Thomas Palileng Elected
July 2004 Nov. 2004 Nardo B. Cayat Elected Felecio Bayacsan Elected
Nov. 2004 Present Thomas R. Palileng Elected Felecio Bayacsan Elected

Source: Souveneir programs of Buguias town fiesta compiled by Former Mayor Pio Toyaoan and Interviews with Mr. Emilio Palbusa, active researcher for Family Trees of Buguias; Former Mayor Pio Toyaoan, Former Councilor and IP leader Ramon Igualdo, COMELEC – CAR Regional Director – Atty. Armando Velasco.

C – Summary Socio-Political Histories of the Barangays

1. Abatan

Abatan was created by virtue of Republic Act No. 4695 dated June 18, 1966. Today, Abatan is considered as the urban center of the municipality. Abatan started out as a stopover in on the crossroads of the Halsema Road (Baguio-Bontoc Road) and the Abatan-Mankayan-Cervantes-Tagudin Road and Abatan-Buguias-Kabayan-Gurel Road. The area surrounding the stopover was a rich hunting ground for folks of Loo and Guinaoang village. It became an important adjunct with the physical integration of the Cordillera Province into the American Colonial Government. Traders would pass through Abatan to reach the gold mines of Suyoc and Lepanto or to the vegetable bowl of Loo. Local history has it that Abatna’s first inhabitant was Galap Almora who in 1930, had a store where travelers stayed, ate and rested before continuing on their journeys.

2. Amgaleyguey

Amgaleyguey was created under Republic Act No. 4695 on June 18, 1966. Amgaleyguey got its name from the word “Nagaleygaleygey”. This is justified by too many creeks bisected the area in a parallel formation flowing to the Agno River. The place was one of the six settlements comprising the barrio of Lut-ac. It became a separate barangay appended to the municipality of Buguias when Lut-ac was annexed into Pacso of the Municipality of Kabayan. It also covered the settlement of Natubleng before Natubleng became a separate barangay in 1971.

3. Amlimay

According to historical accounts of Buguias elders, the place Amlimay was originally called Sayyatan. This is a village on top of a high mountain along the trail at the most southern end of the town. Later during the American Regime, the name Say-yatan was changed to Amlimay in honor of the most influential headman and original family of the barrio. Amlimay is located at the southernmost barangay of Buguias, adjacent to the Municipality of Kabayan, Benguet. It is said to be the first settlement of the ancestors of Benguet people, hence, its moniker as “Home of the Forefathers” of Benguet. The alleged proof of this claim consists of the barangay’s ownership of a jar named “Tokotok”, a rare and antique artifact that was reputed to accommodate around one cavan of rice meant for fermentation into wine.

4. Baculongan Norte

Baculongan is one of the oldest barangays of Buguias created on June 18, 1966 under RA 4695 during the incumbency of Hon. Mayor Gavino Bay-an. In 1983, Baculongan was divided into Baculongan Norte and Baculongan Sur by virtue of Sangguniang Panlalawigan Resolution No. 711. Baculongan came from the word “Colongan”, meaning pigpen, a fence place where domesticated pigs were kept to protect from pest and from roaming around. It became “Baculongan” when the American survey team headed by Benzon referred to the place as such in 1907. Baculongan at that time had the highest number of registered voters and functioned as a courting ground of politicians aspiring for public office.


5. Bangao

Bangao was created under Republic Act. No. 4695 dated June 18, 1966. It is located at the Northern part of the municipality where the legendary well “Cotcot Aso” is located. In the early days, Bangao was called “Elengan”, which means resting place. It was in 1950’s when a primary school was established in the area that the name “Bangao” was adopted. The new name was derived from the word “nabngao”, which means empty rice hall since the place was once known for its rice crop.

6. Buyacaoan

Buyacaoan was created under RA 4695 dated June 18, 1966. It is located at the western part of Buguias. Buyacaoan formerly a part of Loo District Municipality during the American Regime. Buyacaoan derived its name from the original family settlers who live in the domain, its original term “nakeyawan” meaning not fully cooked.

7. Calamagan

Calamagan derived its name from the local word “Kalamag Ka”, means walk to the other side. Dubbed as a “barangay within a barangay”, calamagan is created before the creation of Barangay Lengaoan and Barangay Sebang. It was carved out from barangay Bangao. It shares boundaries with Bangao and is accessible thru Bangao from the Halsema Road. It is the smallest barangay in terms of land area and population resources. Calamagan is home to mainly Kankanaeys engaged in vegetable farming as their primary occupation.

8. Catlubong

Barangay Catlubong was a consolidated part of Baculongan and Poblacion which was created as a barangay in 1969 by virtue of RA 3590. The first settlers speak Kalanguya and Kankanaey who originated from Lusod, Kabayan and Tinoc, Ifugao. Catlubong derived its name from the vernacular “Ketlabong”, a bamboo-like species of grass that once thrive in a small lake that once existed in sitio Lebeng.

The community is known for its promising vegetable industry. Potatoes, cabbages, and carrots are the major crops grown and produced. Moreover, locally grown medicinal plants such as “gipas” are found under the thick oak trees. Residents also practice “ikik” (bird catching) particularly at Mt. Natoo to supplement their protein requirements.

9. Lengaoan

Barangay Lengaoan was formerly a part of Barangay Amgaleyguey. Lengaoan was created into a barangay under Sangguniang Panlalawigan Resolution No. 919 and Ordinance No. 14 approved on October 21, 1991 and ratified by the residents on January 26, 1992. Barangay Lengaoan got its name from the vernacular “Lengaw” which mean evaporation from the earth’s surface particularly in the morning when sun rises. In this particular place too much “lengaw” is being seen every morning when the sun rises and so from that time on, the people called the place Lengawan, but spelled as Lengaoan.

10. Loo

Loo was formerly one (1) of the original nineteen (19) township of Benguet. It was, however, later merged with Buguias, which became a regular municipality only during the post war period with the passage of RA 4695 on June 18, 1966, Loo became a barangay. Loo derived its name from a person named “Lo-o” who lived in the heart of the place. Loo is well known as “LOO VALLEY”. The place now is becoming the educational center of the North of Benguet. This is justified by the presence of the Benguet State University – Buguias Campus, Buguias National High School – Loo Extension and the Loo Elementary School.

11. Natubleng

Natubleng was once a part of Barangay Amgaleyguey and it owes its legal existence as a separate barangay to Republic Act. No. 4695, an act creating the barangay through a barangay resolution sponsored by the former Congressman Andres Cosalan in the House of Representative. The residents ratified the act in a plebiscite called for the purpose on June 16, 1971. Natubleng was derived from the word “Natutubleng” which mean “Waste of Time” or “People in Captivity” which described just how residents passed the time narrating stories and other nonsense topics at the stores and sawmill lumberyards that the Americans established in 1938.

12. Poblacion

Poblacion was created under RA 4695 on June 18, 1966 as one of the Oldest Barangay in the Municipality. Poblacion was formerly known as Man-atong and was the erstwhile center of the municipality during the Spanish and American Occupations up to the late 1960’s. The earliest “Tinibunal” (Tribunal) was established here for tax collection and administrative purpose. The Americans opened a school in 1909, an event that solidified the barrio’s stature as Buguias “Central”. The arrival of the Japanese in 1942, however, resulted in severe setbacks, including the burning of the municipal buildings including the presidencia in 1943 by the Japanese Imperial Army. The school was finally reopened with English as the medium of instruction after the liberation. Houses and public buildings were rehabilitated through the U.S War Damage Commission. The rise of the vegetable trade in the areas along the Halsema Road, however, and the increasing importance of the Abatan junction as an Centerport reduced the focus on Buguias Central or Poblacion as the administrative and economic hub of commerce for the municipality and soon after Buguias earned the moniker as the “Vegetable bowl” of the Cordilleras, the municipal hall was rebuilt therein and administrative as well as economic activities relocated.

13. Sebang

After ten years of the subdivision of Baculongan into Baculongan Norte and Baculongan Sur, Baculongan Sur was then subdivided into two where Barangay Sebang was created by virtue of Sangguniang Panlalawigan Resolution No. 112 and Provincial Ordinance No. 01 approved in February 10, 1992 and ratified on December 27, 1992.

The name of the barangay came from the word “Sebang” means a pathway of animals foraging in the forest.

Data Source - NCIP, Benguet