A. Land Use and Management System

The culture of the community is the same with other indigenous peoples whose lives and traditions is a land-based culture. They build rice fields along creeks and river. A rice field owner is considered part owner of the watershed and has all the right and responsibility to protect the watershed. Firewood and building construction materials can only be taken from an identified village forest, which is communally owned. Land for grazing of animals may either be private or communal.

As in other traditional societies, subsistence agriculture enabled the ibadoys and kankanaeys to produce their food requirements. Root crop cultivation in the “uma” (swiden farms) yielded “dokto” (camote- sweet potatoes) “gabi” (taro) and “ube” (yam). As cattle became the base of the ibaloy economic system, gradually replacing gold mining and trading estancias (grazing land) emerged as a new type of landed property.

Traditional landmarks for boundaries utilized are “atoll” (stonewalls) “alad” (fencing), “shontog” (mountains), “kulukol” (ditch) naturally planted big stones and creeks. Another old tradition of boundary delineation is the “baoc” (soil walling - a sort of stonewall however using specific earthen soils and is built like a mound).

As for the kankanaey, a “pakde” (ceremonial rites attended to by able-bodied male members from each HH, believed to ward off death and any evil calamity that may befall the community.) identifies territorial boundary of the community identified by a “pakedlen” as central monument and pairs of “sipitan” is constructed along pathways that serves as boundary monuments.  

However, as per oral accounts, the preeminence of the ibaloy culture is cattle raising (“pastol”) and due to its high risk, these activity has waned and only limited to some few “baknangs” (rich).

But as cash economy invaded the community, the ICCs turned into commercial agriculture. There was a massive land conversion to chayote production which to date is a lucrative business.