Non-traditional cultural events and practices

Cultural events at the barangay level are the fiestas based on the date of their creation and church fiestas. On the municipal level, the local government initiates the celebration of the municipal-wide event marked by speeches and various entertainment activities. People within and outside the municipality attend and also bring their goods for sale.

Clan reunions have become popular. Relatives either contribute to the expenses or a rich relative can volunteer to undertake all expenses. A program is prepared where selected members are asked to speak while others participate by singing and dancing.

It is during these reunions that the clan’s genealogy is corrected and updated.

IKSPs on Natural Resource Management and Protection

1. Land use and management

The Ibaloy uses lands for residential, agricultural, and spiritual purposes, among others. He also uses it to raise animals such as pigs and cows. Land is the source of flora and fauna he needs for his survival whether these are for food, clothing, house materials or medicine. Like all indigenous peoples, he considers land as the source of life.

How the land is used is influenced by indigenous knowledge. Paddy fields are constructed near water sources, especially beside rivers and streams. These can also be constructed on lower mountain slopes to be irrigated by mountain springs.

Mountain slopes are usually used for swidden farming where crops planted depend only on rain. Flatlands and rolling hills are also used for rain-fed agriculture usually planted to corn and rice

Cows are pastured in open spaces but owners must keep their animals from entering cultivated areas. Violations can result in penalties.

The management of paddy fields is done in coordination and cooperation with adjacent paddy owners and those whose fields are irrigated by the same water source. In water distribution the paddies nearest the source get irrigated first. The owners see to it that the canals are not obstructed to prevent the free flow of water.In the past people practiced cooperative labor to clear or repair the dikes. Those caught diverting water before their schedule were penalized.

Lands are marked by boundaries like stones, fences, water systems, mountains or earthen mounds called baok. A trench built around a portion of a pastureland to keep the cows from straying is also called baok.

In cash vegetable farming, competition for scarce resources like water has led to the deterioration of community sharing and cooperation. Each farmer connects his rubber hose to a source without considering whether his neighbor can have the same access to the resource. Those who were able to connect to the source first are the ones who get ample water supply.

2. Land ownership systems

     A. Type of ownership

In the past types of land ownership included private and communal. Private lands are residential and agricultural. Communal would include the forest and pasture lands and owned by a particular community. People had usufruct use to non-private lands and were entitled to the produce. Others could take over the management of the land if the former user decided not to use it.

     B. Modes of acquisition

Later, communal pasturelands became privatized when people who had cows laid claim to these. These lands, however, could be used by relatives and bagaen who also accumulated cows and who used some portions for agricultural use. Those who used these lands gave a share of the produce to the landowner.

A person who developed a piece of land for agriculture or residential purposes had ownership right to that land. These landholdings can be transferred to the owner’s heirs.

Land can be acquired through marriage. An example is Mateo Carino who came from Tublay and who married Bayosa who had extensive property in Baguio and the adjoining Chuyo. Being the head of the family, he represented the family in land claims that he later made.

Traditionally, anybody who works the land has prior rights to the fruits of the land and later of ownership through continued use. Some people became big landowners as a result of their use of large tracts of land especially as estancia or pasturelands. In the case of Sioco Carino he persuaded some of his cowherds to settle in Tuba and allowed them use of some of the land until such time that he was able to secure paper documents for these lands. He also brought some of his cowherds to Ansagan. Their descendants are still working on the land Sioco allowed them to use.

The practice of kaising is a way of accumulating property by two families. Here, even relatives are encouraged to marry so that the property remains intact.

Land is also transferred through inheritance. The youngest child gets the biggest share because he/she is expected to stay with the parents for the longer period.

Land can also be acquired by a person when he performs labor for a landowner/ this is called dagbo or compensation for work done. With the introduction of the cash economy, land is transferred through the use of money. The mortgage of land is called salsha. If the mortgagor fails to repay the debt, his land is transferred to the debtor.

Traditionally, land is sold only to people within the community especially relatives. The practice is called daho.

The performance of rituals can also result in the transfer of land from one person to another. When a sick person or his family cannot afford to perform a necessary ritual,

A relative or someone in the community may pay for the animals to be butchered and other expenses. The person’s land can be claimed by the “financier” if he fails to repay what was spent.

The same is true with a dead person. If someone, other than his family spends for the death rituals, the former has the right to claim his land as payment.

     C. Land distribution

Land is distributed within the family through inheritance. This is also similar to land transfer. In the past the baknang who claimed large tracts of lands because he had plenty of cows and who had extensive agricultural lands, allowed his pastol and bagaen to use certain portions of his land, usually the peripheries. Some pastol had to go elsewhere when the baknang succeeded in securing paper documents on these lands. Yaris, a pastol of Sioco, moved away from the Tili area when Sioco was able to get documents as proof of ownership of the former pastureland. Other bagaen and pastol were allowed to stay in a baknang’s land without any threat of expulsion.