1. Type of ownership a. Individually owned Individual ownership of agricultural lands among the IP communities of Bokod was known to exist since time immemorial. Perhaps, this is attributed to the fact that these lands have been established and developed by individual families. A notable feature of the individual ownership of lands among the Ibaloi and Kalaguya, is the respect of ownership accorded to the first tiller of the land. Since they allow households who are members of their clan to utilize farm lands that are left idle for some time, the right to first ownership would hold no matter how many layers of subsequent occupants have changed. This becomes more pronounced in the utilization of the uma (swidden) which are left to fallow for 10 years. Sometimes, the owner of an uma may be preoccupied or may have been accustomed to a different income generating activity at the time the same is ready for re-cultivation. In such cases, some families who lack farms to till may ask to utilize the land, which they may do and perhaps pass-on the privilege to another, and so on for periods that could even span a generation, but the ownership of the land would always revert to the original owner. If the original owner had by then passed away, it will be reckoned to his legitimate heirs, thus an inalienable right. b. Clan owned This type of ownership mostly holds only in the occupation of the kejowan. Members of a clan may have access gathering wood or forest products from a parcel of land that originally belonged to their forebears. c. Public/Community owned This type of ownership basically refers to the public forests which are not owned by either a family or clan but is known to the community as their forests or wilderness areas. To the Karao and Kalanguya, their hunting activities would extend deep into the protection forests in search for the trail of game and their habitats. Confusion has arisen among the IP community when secular law has pronounced under the archipelagic doctrine that all lands belong to the state, the impact of which have been felt by the IP community when government started ejecting them out of their abode and resettling them elsewhere in the country to give way to the establishment of the Ambuklao Dam, as it did with the logging operations of BCI that made them witness the ecological rape of their forests. 2. Modes of acquisition/transfer a. Tawid Tawid is a mode of land ownership bestowed by inheritance of the property from parents or ancestors, and would pass-on in the line of ancestry. However, in the event of a marriage with no offspring particularly, when the direct descendant would pass away before the spouse, the property may subsequently be passed on to the next-of-kin of the present possessor thus, was transferred ownership to a relative by affinity. b. Deked Deked is a mode of acquiring ownership of land by way of a mortgage. When a mortgagor does not conform to the agreement, the mortgagee would own the land permanently. c. Salsha/Binbin Salsha or Binbin is a temporary acquisition of land; a mortgage of land with a rider that the production of land would serve as the interest of the capital amount paid to mortgagor. This arrangement holds for an unlimited time frame that would depend upon the mortgagor to return the amount loaned. d. Sakasha Sakasha is another form of land acquisition which actually is an occupation of unoccupied land. In other words, this is clearing new patches of the production forests not otherwise owned, and establishing new farms. 3. Land distribution Parents would decide the fairness of their children’s share of property inheritance (tawid) where early pronouncements can be made, but the recipient may not take possession or have beneficial use of the property until their parents are still alive. The customs of the Ibaloi relatively recognizes the superiority of the male specie in the management of familial affairs. Thus, when a widow decides to remarry, the properties of the woman which by their traditional practice should be withheld from distribution as inheritance to their orphaned children supposedly until the last parent dies, becomes the property of the new family (including the new husband). More often not, nothing should stand in the way when the new husband decides to sell the properties, and the rest is history.