Grain Propagation and Seedling Transplantation Sowing or grain propagation is done by scattering the seeds for growing. Local farmers would propagate their grains from June until the second week of July for the first planting season. For the second season, during which kintoman (red rice) and other varieties are cultivated from December to January. The location and the climate in the area are always important considerations in sowing. Sowing (panbonobon) is done in two manners namely the bangkag (dry sowing) and dinanom/shinanom (broadcast sowing). Dry sowing would involve laying down the grains on soil fertilized with sunflower leaves, the purpose of which is to prevent ants from pestering the grains. When the grains mature into seedlings, these are then transplanted into the plots. On the other hand, broadcast sowing is employed in wet fields where there are lesser chances for ants or rats to lift the grains away. Despite this advantage, seedlings dry sowed are more easily pulled up for transplantation. Sowing is tiresome and laborious especially during the dry seasons that farmers usually assist each other (badang/atang) but usually, the women are tasked to do the sowing. Certain things such as drinking any intoxicating liquor (i.e. tapey, basi, linbeng/dinbeng) are also prohibited when sowing. Doing otherwise, according to locals, will turn the seedlings into red or brown instead of green. Transplanting would then proceed after the seedlings are sowed for a month. As in the other farming activities, taboos and rituals are observed in transplanting seedlings. The suwek/sudang is one in which someone, usually a woman, would plant thee bunches of seedlings at one end of the field and then knot a red grass. When this is completed, transplanting may now begin on the opposite side of the field. Moreover, sneezing (man-bakes) and farting is not allowed if the transplanting is about to begin. While transplanting, one may not turn his/her back. Although not observed nowadays, observing the taboos and practicing the rituals was believed to result in healthy plant growth and rice protection.