SHIVA NEN SAÑGA I-KALAYKAY “Sañgao of Kalaykay” C 1681-1720 Sañgao was a great hunter from kalaykay. Once, he pursued a wild boar through the cordillera mountain range toward Kabayan. The wild boar was following the course of the Alanod River until it reached Imbose. Sañgao was pursuing the boar with the aid of his hunting dog. Upon reaching Imbose, Sañgao came upon a woman digging camote. He inquired as to whether or not she had seen a wild boar pass by and she answered that she had not. The hunter’s dog had however caught the scent of pig blood among the camote vines. Coming closer to his dog, Sañgao saw the wild boar hidden among the camote vines and caught the same. Sañgao then advised the woman to cook a camote while he would butcher the animal for their meal. Both retired to a nearby cave to cook their supper. Afterwards. They slept together, sharing the woman’s aten for cover. The next day, Sañgao asked the woman whether or not she had any family. She replied that her parents’ home was close by. Sañgao divided the meat of the hunt into two equal parts, keeping a half for him and giving the woman the other half. Before departing for his home, he promised the woman he would be back with some of his kin from Kalaykay. Several days later, Sañgao and some of his kin returned to Imbose. They were met by the parents of Topayna, Imiñgan her father and Abokay, her mother. Katuran, a sister of Topayna, was also with her family. Sañgao and Topayna settled in Imbose and had three children – To-to who married and settled in Asokong, Babat who married and settled in Pacso, and Chiao who married and settled in Dutab with Balog. Sañgao brings to Kabayan the first remembered hunting dogs. Dogs hereon would be trained to help Kabayan folk hunt wild animals. Stories of original or founding ancestors include those of persons closely identified with celebrations of the traditional pechit. Further inquiries into preoccupations of these early generations give a uniform account of hunting, fishing, swidden-farming, pig raising and constant feasting. PECHIT Pursued to its conclusion, the pechit is the most lavish and expensive native feast among the Ibadoys. It is a cañao that “grows” with the assurance that the prosperity of the performer also increases accordingly. While sharing his wealth with his neighbors, the celebrant is also accorded social status in the community. The chain of feasts starts with the abeng or ted-do during which at least three big pigs are slaughtered. Only pigs are used as sacrificial animals although cows, carabaos and horses are also slaughtered to feed the crowd. Ted-do is followed by dima, five pigs; then pito, seven pigs; then walo, eight pigs; then siyam, nine pigs; then numbers of pigs are slaughtered for offering. There are remembrances of as many as twenty-five sacrificial pigs butchered at one pechit and even of persons who in their lifetimes repeat their own performance from start to finish. Of equal importance to the early history of Kabayan are stories of rampant head-hunting east of Imbose. As mentioned in the earlier account of the couple Bagdao and Marogay, this inter-settlement disturbance would result in the migration into the Agno valleys of several families. Often identified as the original home of these migrants was thickly populated Ahin in Kadasan district. Among these migrants was the family of Abokay who becomes the wife of Imiñgan and mother of Topayna. Her family is remembered as having come from Balañgabang. The response of Kabayan to these inter-tribal warfares is a sense of community mirrored in its large and compact villages, family clusters, and an evolving tradition from the ngayo or head-taking to the bendian nichilos. Commemorative of a sacrificial rite, the bendian tradition follows an elaborate and definitive offering for relief from prolonged and serious illness or community calamities such as drought or famine. The bendian or sho-ngas originates from the belief of Kabayan folk that their crops, particularly rice, would not grow abundantly unless a human head is offered as ngayo and for which the bendian dance is performed. While performed by the family privileged to be chosen through omens, kin-malat, the ceremony is intended for the entire community and participated in by everyone. BENDIAN OR SHO-NGAS As soon as a decision is reached to perform the bendian, the family to lead the shilos prepares at least three pigs, keshel, and three jars of tafey. Their closest kin, first degree cousins, and neighbors are under obligation to prepare at least a jar of tafey per household. As soon as the rice wine is fermented, the rest of the necessities for the feast is prepared – rice is pounded, animals to be slaughtered are brought to the house of the family, the mambunong and four head takers,olol, gathered. The necessary ceremonies are performed to ensure a successful return of the olol, after which they start on their journey. Remembered situs of head-taking is the general lowlands associated with San Fernando. Upon the return from a successful head-taking expedition, the olol do not proceed directly home but spend a night outside the ba-ang or home lot. With them are their spears, shields, two or three jars of tafey, a pot of uncooked rice, a few pieces of bamboo, and a rooster with beautiful feathers. The fowl is offered in sacrifice by the mambunong who holds the same in his hands, sitting beside the tafey, and reciting the proper prayers. While the rooster is being cooked for theolol, they weave headgear from the bamboo and stick feathers of the cock into them. Throughout the night, over the cups of tafey, the olol and mambunong chant the angba at which the names of all the ancestors of the celebrant family are mentioned. The chant is repeated fifteen times, names of fearless head-taking ancestors recounted. At about six o’clock in the early morning, the victim’s head is placed in a kopiya and carried on the back of one of the olol to the house of the celebrant. The angba is chanted all along. Upon reaching the celebrant’s house, the olol lead the sho-nga or sed-sed, dancing around the house. The old folks of the town then ask the olol whose head they took and from what place was the sacrifice taken. The head-hunters answer by mentioning the place of head-taking or the traditional busol refer in more recent times for the Ahon and Pallatang people. Men and young boys join in the dance which encircles the house four times, some participants carrying their soears, kayang, and shields, kalasay. The war cry of “o-oway” is shouted two times after which the circle is completed. The olol lead the dance. The head is then placed at the top of a pole in the center of a circle by the olol who carried the same in the kopiya, the shields and spears are then stacked around the pole. Dancing continues in circle formation the whole day with every member of the community participating. The old man form the outermost circle, dancing in clockwise formation; the women the inner circle, dancing in counterclockwise motion; young boys in the next inner circle, dancing in clockwise formation; and young girls in the innermost circle, dancing in counterclockwise motion. Hand motions are uniformly executed upon call by the olol such as salawasaw, niniyakan, ines-shongan, kinitangan and others. The bendian dance is performed only in the northern barrios of Kabayan – Dutab, Kabajan, Gusaran and Pacso. Residents of these places trace their ancestors commonly to Imbose. Other Kabayan barrios have not performed any bendian or sho-ngas. Of the Ibadoy dances, the bendian is the most colorful. Not only the feet but the hands and body motions as well synchronize with the gong beats. The olols utter gluttural sounds, cursing the head around which the circle weaves for the wrongs the people to whom it belongs have inflicted on the tribe and offering the same as sacrifice for a bountiful harvest. The dancers wave their spears and hands high up in the air as if rejoicing over a fallen foe. Old men continue to chant the angba with war cries of “O-oway”, “hoy”, punctuating the air. Young girls stand outside the outermost circle with the cups of tafey from where male dancers drink until some of them fall down completely intoxicated. A big cauldron of rice cooked and another prepared for the pig which is first tied to a pole and over which the mambunong says the ceremonial prayers. After cooking, the people eat supper at about six o’clock in the evening. The tayao and searong are substituted for the bendian and goes on the whole night. On the morning of the second day, the bendian dance is resumed at the place where dancing was held the first day with the war cru uttered at the completion of each round. Male dancers hold their spears and shields, dancing around the head four times. Afterwards, the head is transferred to a pole in front of the house of the celebrant within its ba-ang. A pig is tied to the pole which each dancer touches with his or her foot before participating in the ensuing dance. The ceremonies of the preceding day are duplicated until about six o’clock in the evening when the olol take off their headgear and the male dancers pick up their spears and shields and lay them in the house of the celebrant to remain there for at least five days. Majority of the participants then go home. The olol and a few other people remain and continue dancing the tayao throughout the night. The following morning, another pig is butchered. Blood of the animal is wrapped in a betel nut leaf which is subsequently pierced to allow drops to fall on the face of the person celebrating the bendian as well as on the faces of his nearest kin, up to first-degree cousins. After partaking in the morning meal, the remaining visitors are given their share whatever remaining cuts of meat there are to take home. Under taboo or pijaw, the olol remain the same house for three more days during which there and the celebrant may either visit or receive visitors. Everything they do must be done as a group, including answering the call of nature. Neither are they allowed to bathe. Every child of five years and older is obliged to participate in the bendian and a person is given the assignment to see it that everyone participates. There is a slight difference in the observance of the bendian tradition between Dutab and the other barrios of Kabajan-Gusaran_pacso, the celebration lasting only one day at Dutab and two days in the three other barrios. Remembered with fierce pride and nostalgia, imbose was not to remain a settlement forever. Subjected to the sane factors for migration with accounts of an epidemic threat. Imbose is today a place mentioned only in the bah-diw. Among its last known residents was Kapot, ancestor to Itogon “lead” families.