SITE OF THE LONGEST MAN-MADE LAKE
Bokod is entirely within the Central Cordillera Reservation, mandated by proclamation No. 217 since February 16, 1929. It is found along the southern part of Benguet at approximately 120°40” to 120°50” east longitude and 16°20” north latitude. It is bounded on the north along Kabayan, on the south by Itogon, on the west by Atok and on the east by Kayapa, Nueva Vizcaya. Bokod is the second largest municipality of Benguet with a land area of48, 830 hectares to the total land area of 275,258 hectares.
The 57-kilometers concreted and winding road leading to Bokod from Baguio City via Barangay Ambuklao is passable by any type of vehicular transport during the dry season with an average of two hours. However, it may take six to eight hours of rough and bumpy ride interspersed with hiking through mud and wading through some water during the rainy season. It may even take one and a half to two days hike. Typhoon and heavy rains often include landslides resulting to the isolation of the municipality. It could also be reached via the historic Halsema highway and via Buguias-Kabayan. From Manila, Bokod is about 320 kilometers northwards.
Early people mostly from the northeast, specially the Tinek (Tinok) culture areas, first settled the first scope and bounds of the present Bokod municipality.
Tinek warriors or hunters founded Daclan. Later, some of their comrades intermarried with the people of Batan (Kabayan) who, by oral accounts, were mostly earlier arrivals from Tinek areas.
Ambuklao was settled by the Ibalois of Kalanguya extract or a mixture from the point of origin near what is known today as modern Kabayan. Later, many of them intermarried with the people of Bisal and Poblacion (the Central Bokod).
A. Land Use and Management System
- Land Use Patterns
The payew is the wetland rice fields of the IP communities of Bokod. It is a status symbol in the sense that before employment in industries became practicable, which generated income to buy rice; only the households with payew can have the luxury of eating rice. At that time, most marriages were brokered in consideration of the possession of wetland rice fields perhaps, due to the fact that however industrious a person would to establish one, very few areas were suitable and available then. A relative shrinkage of rice field-holdings was brought about by partitioning the inheritance to their descendants, thus, have become cramped and ownership limited, but it has remained a treasured family repute thru generations as did the Magangans. Normally, the wetland rice fields are situated along the riparian zones, mostly along the stretch of the Agno River. However, a greater portion of the age-old rice fields have been submerged with the creation the Ambuklao Dam apart from those submerged or destroyed by huge volumes of sedimentation after the earthquake of 1990.
b. Baeng, Dasi or Kabaangan
The baeng (Ibaloi), dasi (Karao) or kabaangan (Kankanaey) is a backyard garden that characterizes the settlement areas of the IP communities of Bokod and elsewhere in Benguet, planted to a variety of fruit trees and other plants of economic value in multi-layered canopies underlain by vegetable crops thus; resembling both the random mix and the multi-story cropping technologies. In 1995, the “Asia Pacific Forum on Agroforestry” has identified this IKSP as indigenous to Benguet, as it was such popularized in existing agroforestry literatures as home lot agroforestry or home gardens by Samuel R. Peñafiel, a DENR Research Specialist in the 1980s.