THE JAPANESE PERIOD (1941 – 1945)
In 1935, when Paoay was not yet a popular area, an American named Mr. Harold from Camp John Hay established a sawmill in Km. 47, Namegpuegan, Bongdo where he employed two Japanese civilians named Mr. Sato and Mr. Tomita assigning them as managers of his sawmill. These two Japanese civilians befriended the natives of the area, employing them as laborers in the sawmill. The people never suspected that the two Japanese men were gathering information about their place, for the two were spies of the Japanese Imperial Army.
When the natives learned of the coming war, the government started to recruit people to join the military units. All males aged eighteen above, regardless of height were conscripted. They were trained in Sagubo, Kapangan for six months by Capt. Bado Dangwa and Major Denise Molintas. The women were recruited to be cargadores of foodstuff for the guerillas.
In 1942, Mr. Bado Dangwa and Denise Molintas organized their first guerilla movement which were the M, I, L, K, companies. The L Company operated mainly in Atok and some parts of Kapangan. The outpost commanders were Capt. Felipe Tiotio, Lt. Alfredo Alumno, Lt. Mateo Balao, Lt. Bayod, Sgt. Greg orio Kismod. Corporal Jacinto with sixty-four soldiers all in all under their command.
A. LAND USE AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
A.1. INDIGENOUS PEOPLE’S NOTION OF LAND
Indigenous people believe that land was granted to them by Kabunyan and entrusted to them to harness, to cultivate and develop, to take care, sustain and patronize. To them, private property is nonexistent because they adhere to the value of collectivism. In fact peaceful co-existence and harmonious relationship with nature defined the people’s role as stewards or guardians of the land.
Since time Immemorial the indigenous peoples has been occupying the territory that they are presently in. Historical accounts show that even before the coming of the colonizers, the people were already in possession of the land. They have developed systems of how to exploit the resources within the land. They have built their permanent settlements, constructed their rice terraces, identified their territories from boundary to boundaries, and they were living peacefully. They have developed a culture that defined their actions, their behaviors, in order to survive.
The IPs has already a notion of territoriality, a concept of land rights or what we now call as ancestral domain. They believed that the land was bequeathed to them by their ancestors and by Kabunyan.