See also: Barangay Officials of Abiang, Barangay Officials of Caliking, Barangay Officials of Cattubo, Barangay Officials of Naguey, Barangay Officials of Paoay, Barangay Officials of Pasdong, Barangay Officials of Poblacion, Barangay Officials of Tupdac,
HISTORY OF ATOK
I. PRE-SPANISH PERIOD (1400-1892)
1. The Ibalois
2. The Kalangoyas
3. The Kankana-eys
a. Leo, Banog, Olis, Tawa
f. Longued and Abudina
When a person was about to die, he was made to drink a glass of water diluted with salt so that the intestines of the person would be freed from any bacterial organism. Guava leaves were boiled and then the water is cooled off to be used to bathe the dead person. A vine known as “besodak” is pounded to produce a greenish juice which they applied throughout the body of the deceased person. This serves as the preservative.
After this, he is made to sit in a “changadil”, a wooden death chair, with his feet close to his body and his hands folded and resting on his knees. Fire wood was then prepared to be burned and placed in front of the dead. The smoke helps to dry the body. A jar is placed underneath the “changadil” to catch the body fluid that comes out of the dead person’s body.
Constantly, a member of the family closely watches the body making sure that flies would not alight on the body. This process lasts for six months extending to one year depending on the deceased person’s wealth. The dead is buried in a dry place to prevent the body from decaying and to keep the moisture out and maintain the body intact for many years to come.
B. Early Society
The earliest means of livelihood of the people was hunting. The thick forest was abundant sources of game and edible forest products. Some areas proved to be suitable for rice farming. These were places of lower elevation, thus with a warmer climate which was necessary for rice growing. Riverine areas supplied needed irrigation for wet agriculture. In areas of higher elevation, the “kaingin” system was extensively practiced. Camote and gabi were the main products.
Chickens and pigs were later raised but not extensively. The cows and carabaos came in later.
Early trading was conducted with the Ilocos Provinces and La Union, the products traded from the area being forest products until gold was discovered and became an important trading item. With a highly valued commodity, the natives became greater involved in trading which enabled them to bring home more trade items from the lowlands. Trading in the later period also served as the vehicle through which aspects of Ilocano culture were introduced.
Ownership over land was easily established by working on it as grazing land. Fences were used to indicate ownership or trees as the indicator of the extent of one’s property.
2. Early Government
The “dakay” (old man) was considered as the ruler of the community. He must be “malinteg” (lawgiver) and a “kadangyan”. As a “malinteg”, he knew all the types of cañao and the proper sequencing of these. He was familiar with rituals and rites. He should have knowledge of these so that in his deliberation of cases, he can readily choose rituals that ought to be performed. He officiates weddings. There was no ritual connected to becoming a “dakay”. He simply became the choice of the people and especially by agreement among the council of elders. This council of elders was composed of old men in the community who were the “baknang”, “malinteg”, and “mambunong”. Among their duties were to try cases, settle disputes, and serve as advisers to the “dakay” and in case of “buso” attack lead the people to fight and drive them away.
Forms of punishments during the early times were few but severe. “Sab-ot” was the punishment for stealing animals whereby fine for the animals taken, was twice the stolen number. “Bitay” was punishment for grave crimes like murder and rape. Here, a person is to be hanged. Sometimes a person who committed grave crime was freed but was required to leave the community.
3. Social Stratification
During the early times, when people were still few, there were two classifications in the society namely, the “baknang” and the “abiteg”. The “baknang” were people belonging to the upper class who owns as many as ten up to twenty pigs, twenty to thirty cattle, and who performed the peshit of eight to fifteen pigs. The “abiteg” were people belonging to the lower class who owned their houses, had kaingin, sometimes a small field and a few animals.
As time went by with the growth of population, there occurred a change in the social stratification. Some “baknang” became “kadangyan” because of the face that they came to own more animals enabling them to perform the highest peshit. The kadangyan were the richest among the rich, who owned thirty to fifty pigs. Cattles of one hundred and above and who have performed peshit of 25-50 pigs. With this development, the practice of having “baga-en” and “bague” became rampant among the kadangyan.
The baga-en was people in the community belonging to the lower class. They were the biteg who were employed as caretakers of the fields and animals of the rich. He was paid in kind kike food and clothing. Sometimes they were required to render service at the house of the master for one week enjoying free meals. Some of them were the poorer kin of the rich.
The bague were children stolen from other communities by traders coming from other places (like Hongduan) and who were bartered for one pig or one carabao depending upon the age of the child. The age range of children traded was from ten to fifteen years old. Among the kadangyan, Primitivo Palasi owned several bague sold to them by a certain man from Hongduan, Tinec. One child was bartered for one white horse; the others were bartered for pigs. The kadangyan who bought them used them as their slaves.
The slaves worked in their farms, ran errands, gathered wild fruits and hunted game for the master, and cooked for him. Whether to feed or cloth them properly or not depended upon the master. If the master decided to keep him as the bague forever, that was his prerogative. It was within the master’s prerogative. It was within the master’s discretion whether he would marry or not. If so, then he was allowed to marry but only to a bague like himself.
The master’s duty towards his slave was to feed him and his family and to free him paying the amount necessary if he commits any crime. The bague were the lowest class of people, with no will of their own or freedom of choice.
The class distinction were evident not only in the terms of the extent of rice lands (this basis of wealth was not as significant as the ownership of animals) the number of animals, ownership of jars and gongs and performance of peshit but likewise in the manner of dressing. In death too, particular rituals and appropriate burial ceremonies were accorded the rich. Special burial caves belonged to certain rich families.
When a kadangyan or a baknang died, he was mummified for six months to one year and they used either the “alashong” or the “pinagpagan” as his blanket. The “alashong” was a blanket with blue and white stripes while the “pinagpagan” had black and red stripes. These blankets were used for the sole purpose as dead man’s blankets.
The biteg were buried underground in any place the relatives would choose but usually in their own fields. Some, particularly the Ibalois bury their dead under their houses.
The bague was also buried underground. A large stone was placed on top of his grave to indicate his status.
Earliest Musical Instruments
1. Pakgong- made of bamboo about 1 ½ inches in diameter and 20 inches long split at the middle. Played by striking the bamboo at the palm.
2. Kudding/Kul-eng- made from outer skin of the bamboo which is about 3 inches long, cut into 3 divisions but not separated. This is played with the mouth by blowing and at the same time striking the middle division with the finger while blowing on it.
3. Galdang- made of a flat wood about ten inches long and four inches wide with four strings of “tubong” (from the fiber of a certain tree) placed on one face of the wood like a guitar.
4. Galili – made of a small bamboo about 1½ inch in diameter with three holes with equal distance from each other. This is played through the nose while the holes are alternately pressed to produce the desired sound.
5. Solibao- made of wild animal skin tied around and covering the mouth of a hollow elongated wood about three feet long. The player beats the skin with his hands.
Later, in the 1700’s the “binobod” gongs were introduced through barter trade in Pangasinan. One gong was bartered with one carabao. The binobod gong was made of copper. The natives usually used it in cañaos and other festivities.
II. SPANISH PERIOD (1892-1900)
There is no known record of historical events that took place during the Spanish regime because of the absence of written accounts by the natives of Chontog, the name referred to the general area meaning mountainous and by the Spaniards themselves.
The first remembered Spaniards who came to the area were Spanish military officials and Spanish missionaries from La Trinidad in the year 1892. They came here firstly to search for the “esta ora” (gold), secondly, to spread Christianity, and thirdly to establish the local colonial government. The Spaniards were never able to locate the gold mines in Lito-an, but they made minimal impact in religion and more significantly influence in government.
Initial contact between the natives and the Spaniards were in Naguilian, La Union and Tagudin, Ilocos Sur, when the natives went down to trade. They already knew the Spaniards extracted taxes and required other burdensome impositions on the people. When the Spaniards came in 1892, the people were reluctant to accept them but for fear of punishment, yield to the authorities.
The only existing settlements when the Spaniards came to the area were Chontog, Naguey, Banayakew, Abiang, Caliking and Patapat. There were only 80-100 families at that time Chontog had about 40 households and Naguey about 30 and the rest were small groupings spread to the other places.
The first appointed “presidente” (head of the town) was Damis of Patpat now Km. 34 in the sitio of Topdac. He was chosen by the Spaniard authorities because he was one of the “Kadangyan”. The Spanish officials usually lodged at his place when they went to Chontog for inspection and collection of taxes.
The first precedencia was built in Campao. It was a small hut here meetings were held and where taxes were gathered and deposited until collected by the Spanish officials. President Damsis served the Spanish government for two years. He was succeeded by Presidente Balanac of Caliking. During the term of Caliking, he transferred the precedencia in Bacweg. The “Kastil” gave Balanac a “baston” (walking cane) as a symbol of authority which was passed on to whoever was next to serve as president. It was turned on to Anuma who was the third appointed president. Anuma transferred the precedencia to Chontog barrio.
During the turnover ceremony of the “baston” that the Spaniards gave Balanac, Anuma while delivering his speech was struck by a strong lightning causing him to faint. After a moment he regained consciousness. There was a “mammadto” who told him: “Follow the lightning, and when you talk, you will be feared and respected by the people. Likewise your children will be respected and someday and someday one of them will be a leader of the town and wherever they will be, they will be blessed and become prosperous”. After this incident, the people called him Pool meaning burned.
The omens interpreted by the “mammadto” became true. Most of the sons of Anima and Gatipa are influential in the history of Atok, political wise, economic wise and education wise.
It was the term of Anuma Pool when the people of Atok started to become unified. Since the Spaniards came, the people of Chontog and the surrounding communities were no longer united and peaceful. Some of the natives were evacuating to other places like Tublay an Tuba to escape the abusive Spaniards. Anuma being the presidente advised his people not to move out of their municipality even offering to pay their taxes.
It was also this term when the “tongtong” or amicable settlement was extensively practiced by the old folks. Kaising system came into existence as basis for solving disputes.
III. AMERICAN PERIOD (1900-1940)
There is no account about the Spanish-American was in Atok. An American who later settled in Paoay is the only person known to have participated in this war but not within Atok.
Very little account also exists about the Filipino-American war. It was only the flight of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo and his staff who passed through Atok Central, Naguey, Pasdong, and Bonguengueg to Buguias that people remember. The natives of Atok Central and Naguey were the ones who carried Aguinaldo and his staff in hammocks to their destination in Suyoc, Mankayan. After the natives reached their destination, they returned to their own homes.
The American soldiers who pursued gen. Aguinaldo were all black people whom the natives called “nigdos”. The people were afraid of the back people and rightly so because they abused women and even raped one that caused her death. They reached Atok Central in the middle of 1898. When they knew that Gen. Aguinaldo was not in town, the Negro soldiers returned to Taguidin where their headquarters was located.
IV. THE JAPANESE PERIOD (1941 – 1945)
In 1935, when Paoay was not yet a popular area, an American named Mr. Harold from Camp John Hay established a sawmill in Km. 47, Namegpuegan, Bongdo where he employed two Japanese civilians named Mr. Sato and Mr. Tomita assigning them as managers of his sawmill. These two Japanese civilians befriended the natives of the area, employing them as laborers in the sawmill. The people never suspected that the two Japanese men were gathering information about their place, for the two were spies of the Japanese Imperial Army.
When the natives learned of the coming war, the government started to recruit people to join the military units. All males aged eighteen above, regardless of height were conscripted. They were trained in Sagubo, Kapangan for six months by Capt. Bado Dangwa and Major Denise Molintas. The women were recruited to be cargadores of foodstuff for the guerillas.
A. Arrival of the Japanese Imperial Army
In January 1941, the first Japanese Imperial Army contingent arrived in the area. It was one battalion composed of thirty soldiers. They came from Baguio City passing via the Halsema Mountain Highway. They came to Sayangan by foot. In 1940, before the Japanese Army arrived in Baguio, there were three US army men from Camp John Hay who upon hearing the news that the Japanese were in Manila immediately took action in destroying the Halsema Mountian Highway. They started bombing the road from La Trinidad towards the north in Bontoc with the use of dynamite purposely so that the Japanese invaders will be deterred from entering the sub-provinces of the Mountain Provinces and the surrounding areas, because the conditions of Halsema Mountain Highway was rendered impassable. The Japanese Tankers and weapons carriers cannot pass the road. They must have to hike by foot.
When this Japanese battalion arrived in Sayangan, nobody of the natives residing specially along the highway was around. All of the natives left their places of domicile, since 1940 upon hearing the news that the Japanese were in Manila. They evacuated into the mountains because of fear for the Japanese soldiers.
This Japanese battalion established their garrison in Sayangan. They patrolled around Paoay where they shot three cows owned by Mrs. Susie vda. de Haight. for their food.
One Japanese soldier, who was patrolling around Km.49 near Sayangan, while walking along the road saw a woman washing camote in the creek, because he was so inhuman, he raped the woman but later, luckily set her free.
Among the evacuees were not only natives but also Chinese from the place as well as from places outside Atok. The Japanese High Command decreed that they should voluntarily surrender themselves to the Japanese authorities in Trinidad. As soon as they surrendered themselves to the Japanese authorities in Trinidad, as soon as they surrendered, they were forced to render services for the repair of the Halsema Mountain Highway.
The Japanese Imperial Army built another garrison extension in Sapiangao, km.26 with six soldiers, km.35 with six soldiers and a cannon, and made Sayangan as their headquarters with thirty soldiers and two machineguns.
Aside from these there was a highway patrol group along the Halsema Mountain Highway coming from Baguio City.
At the same year the Japanese High Command declared that all civilians who were hiding in the mountains must have to present themselves to the Japaneses Army whose main headquarters was in Sayangan. Anybody who did not comply with the order was shot to death. So the natives of the area, fearing to be killed presented themselves to the Japaneses officers. The Japanese forced them to work the road connecting Balangbang to Km. 35 to Km. 30.
They were paid P1.00 and provided with one small can of rice per day. Later on, when the people were settled, they resumed their daily activities and worked their kaingin. This was the time when there was abundant harvest of plants grown due to the Japanese order to grow plants for food. This was done so as to have constant supply of food for the Japanese. It was from 1942 until 1943 when Atok was relatively peaceful. All the civilians were free to move out to secure their food supplies.
B. Japanese Occupation
The Japanese Imperial Army took over the government on March 1 1943. They established their Japanese Puppet Government with the natives of the town as the officials but under the supervision of the Japanese High Command. Their chief municipal officials were the municipal mayor, the vice-mayor, the treasurer and the councilors.
The Japanese Imperial Army imposed a dictatorial government in which all the rights and freedom of the natives were disregarded. No election was held thereby the right to choose their officials was deprived.
The Japanese officials appointed Mr. Alfredo Bayas as the mayor of the town. There were three vice-mayors who served during the Japanese occupation. The first one, Piso, Alipio served for one year after which he was a member of the guerilla forces. Victorino Boliney took over for about six months. A native of Atok Central divulged the information that he was a member of the guerilla forces. So he was hanged publicly in the Atok Central plaza for all the people to see and to serve as a warning for all who were supportive to the guerilla movement. Mateo Sison took over until the end of the Japanese period.
1. Japanese Laws and Administration
a. The Japanese enforced the natives of the town to be members of the KALIBAPI wherein every individual had a nameplate for identification, Below the nameplate was a small Japanese flag placed at the right side of the jacket.
b. Each person must be a member of the neighborhood association where the natives were expected to be informers about guerilla movements. Anybody fount to be anti-Japanese was punished severely or tortured or brutally killed. Sometimes people who were found guilty were hanged or given no food for a number of days or even a month. Another torture method was forcing the person to drink a gallon of water or even more.
c. Enforcement of Green Revolution. People were forced to plant. They planted mostly camote because there was a lack of seeds of plants that used to be planted during the American time.
d. Enforcement of discipline. Every native of the town ought to bow to any Japanese soldier and specially officials when meeting them. Anyone who did not bow to the Japanese soldiers was slapped twice on their faces.
The mayor appointed shouldered various expenses made for the entertainment of the Japanese Imperial Forces who patrolled around the town. It was charged against his personal expenses.
C. Guerilla Activities
In 1942, Mr. Bado Dangwa and Denise Molintas organized their first guerilla movement which were the M, I, L, K, companies. The L Company operated mainly in Atok and some parts of Kapangan. The outpost commanders were Capt. Felipe Tiotio, Lt. Alfredo Alumno, Lt. Mateo Balao, Lt. Bayod, Sgt. Greg orio Kismod. Corporal Jacinto with sixty-four soldiers all in all under their command.
It was in 1943, when the natives of Atok organized themselves into “bolomen” composed of untrained but brave and courageous civilians. Their task is to safeguard the native evacuees. They were the ones who relayed messages to the guerillas. They built their outpost in Paoay with Mr. Awadi Backian as commander with thirty men, Mr. Tero Balao of Salat with thiry men and Mr. Pagal in Abiang with thirty men also.
D. Economic Conditions
Some of the natives resumed their daily activities like planting camote in their kaingin and those who still had some more potato seeds planted these. But products must be sold to anyone but to the Japanese Imperial Army alone and at a very low price. A kilo of potatoes was bought at P0.15 centavos while in Baguio it was sold for P0.50 centavos. Any of the natives who were found selling their products in Baguio were hanged for a number of days and given no food.
All the industries that flourished during the American period deteriorated under the Japanese period. The logging firm of Mr. Harold and the Molteo’s were burned. Cattle raising declined with the cows consumed by the Japanese Imperial army as well as the guerillas. Houses were burned like the Hotel owned by the Haight’s. All their animals were shot by the Japanese and eaten. All of these led to the economic dislocation of the people. When the war was over all the inhabitants of the area faced this major problem.
E. Social Cultural Conditions
All schools in Atok were closed and religion was prohibited. During the reign of the Japanese there was relative peace. Nobody was stealing and people became industrious due to their fear for the Japanese soldiers. They were threatened that if anybody was found stealing he was to be punished by cutting off his hands or beheading in the public plaza. There were no cañaos celebrated during the Japanese occupation. Some words were taught by the Japanese to the natives. “Ohayo”. “Konichiwa”, “Kumbawa” were taught to greet the soldiers.
The beginning of the Liberation was in 1944, when the American soldiers returned back to the Philippines. The Japanese Imperial army retreated following the Halsema Mountain Highway. It was during this time that the guerilla forces helped to fight the enemies.
The first battle fought in Atok was in Km.47, Bongdo where the “bolomen” headed by Lt. Bayod one of the guerilla soldiers awaited the retreating forces of the Japanese coming from Baguio. This battle lasted for an hour. The “bolomen” retreated from the enemies for lack of ammunition aside from the fact that they were not trained in the techniques of operating and holding guns.
On March 1944, there were three Japanese soldiers, who escaped in Salat, Paoay. But luckily, they were seen by the “bolomen”. They killed two of them. But the other one fought one of the “bolomen”. The “boloman” was shot at his penis because he was not able to hoot first. Although he was holding a gun, he did not know how to operate it.
It was in the year 1944, that many unwholesome and evil things occurred. The wife of _______ who was working in the Kaingin was raped by three Japanese soldiers patrolling the area, after which they ate her flesh. Likewise also in Abiang they killed one “boloman” by the name of Pagal and ate his flesh. These things the retreating forces were able to do because there was extreme hunger for there was no more food to eat. They were also hemmed in already.
The last battle that was fought was in Km. 24, Caliking where there was a lot of casualties on the part of the Japanese. It was where the Japanese Imperial Army built their hide out. The first who fought with the Japanese stationed here were the 21st Infantry. All of them were wounded. Then it was taken over the 32nd Infantry division composed of American soldiers. But many of them were killed and most were wounded. They retreated and the British soldiers took over. Many Japanese soldiers were killed and they were the ones who retreated this time from the British army. This battle lasted for a month.
The last American forces who stayed and built their garrison in Sayangan and Bongdo were the engineering corps. They had fifty tankers and seventy weapon carriers and jeeps. They stayed in Sayangna up to 1946 clearing all the roads and all the ravages of war.
In 1935, there were epidemics in Atok. Dysentery, influenza and high fever plagued the people. There were many people who died due to lack of medicine. Some medicine were given by the government but was not enough to supply the whole population.
G. The early Post – Liberation
The reestablishment of the Philippine Commonwealth government was in 1946. The natives of the town elected Felipe Tiotio as the mayor of the town.
The BFI and German experts have found that the most productive way of planting potato is the single row planting method. With this method yield can go up to as much as 50 tons per hectares. This is the newest technique in planting and propagating potatoes.
The experts recommend that farmers should plant un-cut potato tubers for this will minimize transmission of a viral disease and facilitate the production of uniform sized tubers come harvest time which comes four months later. This method of planting will also make easier for farmers to cultivate and weed the fields because the seeds are planted 30 centimeters apart.
The major cropping which are now grown in the area are potatoes, cabbages, carrots and sweet peas, In Paoay alone there are about 70 farmers, some of which are harvesting 3 times while others even four times a year.
The channel of distribution of crop production is mostly in Baguio by the retailers, who owned stores, at a reasonable price but some retailers who buy double their gain. Many of the buyers come from Manila and other provinces like Pangasinan, Pampanga and others. They buy vegetables specially those coming from the Mountain trails.
The major cost of growing vegetables depends upon the extent of the site of operation. One hectare of potatoes ha an average input cost of P18, 000.00 to P24, 000.00. this amount is divided into the purchase of the following items:
1 truck of chicken manure costing P2,100.00; 15 bags of fertilizers costing P82.00 each; and 1 cartoon of chemicals, the “mazate”, P52.00. One box of chemicals last only for a month. The laborers are paid P150.00 monthly.
The production output of one hectare of potatoes is 15 tons. The salable would be 12 tons. For cabbages, one hectare produces 10,000 kilos, and a hectare planted of carrots yields 120 bags.
Large scale vegetable farmers are those who own 4-6 hectares of land. The following are large scale farmers:
1. Edward Celo
2. Mayor John Haight
3. Edward Puy-as
4. Bo. Capt. Colantes Basbas
5. Prudencio Bay-an
6. Noel Sagpatan
7. Andrew Salawad
8. Fausto Depayso
9. Tero Balao
Middle scales are farms which are 2 or 3 hectares in diameter.
The credit facilitates where farmers can loan are the Rural Bank, Development Bank and Phil. National Bank. These bans give out loans when the farmers have completed the ff. requirements:
a. Copy of certification title
b. Copy of tax declaration
c. Copy of deed of sale, deed of transfer, deed of donations and supporting documents.
d. Sketch of the lot.
e. Sketch of non-delinquency or receipt covering tax payments for the current year.
f. Affidavit of adjoining owners of the land stating among other things, that the owners had continuously been in possession of the land for 5 years or more. (This is true to tax declarations only).
g. Affidavit of non-tenancy (non-residential).
h. Certificate of Ministry of Agrarian Reform (for properties classified as non-residential).
i. Individual income tax returns.
These are the standardized requirements to any farmer wanting to obtain loan from the bank. If the farmer applied for a loan of about P50, 000.00, the bank will designate an appraiser to go and see the kind and the assessed value of the property. This is done in order to assure the bank that the loan the farmer is borrowing is legitimate or not. If the land only values at P20, 000.00, then the bank will also give the corresponding amount. Loans are payable in one year with a 12% interest/P100.00.
In Atok there was some organization which was established to help the farmers to get their finance like the Credit Union which was founded by Father Bernard Ged-eng and Pastor Dulnuan in January 1970. The farmers loan an average of P2, 000.00 to P3, 000.00 payable within six months. The only needed requirements were collaterals. But after three years operation, it went bankrupt due to some farmers who availed of the facilities but who did not pay their loans. Operation was turned over to the Sayangan Cooperation store which is managed by the same person but under different condition. It also extended credit facilities to the farmers but only to those who trace a share in the cooperative store.
Recently in October 1979, the Rural Bank of Atok was established managed by Mr. Carlos Buasen. This rural bank was organized by Mr. Orlando Smith, Johnny Uy and Mr. Jovito Antonio who have significant capital shares in the Bank. This bank also gives loans to farmers.
Major Problems of Farmers in Paoay Today and the Proposed Solutions
a. There must be the establishment of marketing facilities and the installation of storage facilities;
b. The farmers must have to determine the area and volume of vegetable production. Hence, the demand and supply of vegetables production. Hence, the demand and supply of vegetables must have to be met.
c. The provisions of market information to farmers and traders. In Atok they have the MAC in which they have a two way radio to disseminate the prevailing prices of vegetables.
d. Implementation of specific marketing strategies. Like in the establishment of marketing contracts between producers and traders; Identification of institutional outlets; Diversification of market outlets; Improvements of marketing service and facilities.
a. Loans granted have not paid and farmers borrowers penalized by banks due to non-payment because of calamities like typhoon, frosts, hailstorm, monsoon rains and drought and extremely low prices due to inefficient marketing system and un-programmed planting.
With regard to past due to loan, President Marcos has given the restructuring program to loan farmers to pay their debt in the bank without any punishment or interest of the money borrowed.
b. Non-bankability of most farm areas.
c. Banks require too many paper requirements.
d. Rural and commercial bank loans given are not enough to buy required inputs.
e. Vegetable farming, being a high risk venture, the term of loans given by bank is considered short.
f. Misuse of loans funds and untimely release of loan proceeds.
g. Age old dependence of farmers on traders as source of financing.
h. Many farmers are heavily indebted to banks, traders as their source of credit. This is one of the biggest problems of some farmers are indebted to traders. Because of this they could not look for other buyers unless they have totally paid their debts.
The farmers get indebted because some traders advance the money that they need to buy the fertilizer, chemicals and other inputs. In return, these farmers must use their products to pay the traders and hence, instead of getting more profit they don’t.
Many farmers get into this situation because they still have unpaid loans from banks such as PNB, DPI and RB. They could no longer borrow money from these banks and had to borrow from traders and users.
Some traders only pay half of the amount due to farmers. When they buy the product, the other Hals is retained by them to ensure them that the farmers will supply them regularly with vegetables.
3. Lack of seeds to plant specially potatoes.
In Atok there is an ongoing program in which a farmer can borrow from the Bureau of Plant Industry 500 kilos of potato – seeds for planting on a hectare of land. After harvest, the farmers give back the 500 kilos that they borrowed and the rest will be sold to the BPI for P3.00 Per kilo.
Mr. Hilario Dangayo – Officer-In-Charge, MAC
Mr. Edward Celo – Pres. Benguet/Mt. Province Seed Growers
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