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 Indigenous communities, peoples and nations are those which having a historical continuity with pre-invasion and pre-colonial societies on their territories, consider themselves distinct from other sectors of the societies now prevailing in those territories, or parts of them. They form at present non-dominant sectors of society and are determined to preserve, develop and transmit to future generations their ancestral territories, and their ethnic identity, as the basis of their continued existence as peoples in accordance with their cultural patterns.

This historical continuity may consist of the continuation of, for an extended period reaching into the present, one or more of the following factors:

  • Occupation of ancestral lands, or at least a part of them;
  • Common ancestry with the original occupants of these lands;
  • Culture in general, or specific manifestations (such as religion, living under a tribal system, membership of an indigenous community, dress, means of livelihood, life-style, etc.);
  • Language (whether used as the only language, as mother tongue, as the habitual means of communication at home or in the family, or as the main, preferred, habitual, general or normal language);
  • Residence in certain parts of the country, or in certain regions of the world;
  • Other relevant factors.

On an individual basis, an indigenous person is one who belongs to these indigenous (group consciousness) and is recognized and accepted by these populations as one of its members (acceptance by the group). This preserves for the communities sovereign right and power to decide who belongs to them, without external interference.” (UN DOC. N°E/CN Sub.2/1983/21)

LAND USE and MANAGEMENT SYSTEM [Click to Read]

LAND OWNERSHIP SYSTEMS [Click to Read]

A. FOREST AND WATERSHED MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION PLAN [Click to Read]

  B. WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION

Water was a very important resource to the Ibaloys, in fact, it was prohibited to build homes near water sources. A ritual was performed wherein a small woven basket is filled with rice, gabi, meat etc. and hanged at the end of a stick and placed as an offering at the source of water, usually a spring.

Accounts are given by respondents saying that they followed waterways in their migration routes to better places and the headwaters led them to Baguio and eventually Trinidad. They also tell of the many fishes like wadingan in the rivers and streams in the area.

Traditional water management included the following:

  • No bathing of animals in springs and sources of water.
  • No defecating in or near the source of water.
  • No cutting of trees above the sources of water.
  • Trenches (ketang) are built to prevent pollution of the spring.

(NOTE: No Marine & Mineral Resources are found in the domain)

C. NATURAL HEALTH PRACTICES

The Ibaloys used many plants especially the leaves, bark and roots to cure illnesses aside from their animistic practices.

Plant Preparation Treatment/Use
1. Kad-kadong (kadot) Leaves (poultice) Cures wounds, blood clots, anti-infection, anti-inflammatory
2. Pitcher plant The sealed pitcher plant Diuretic
3. Tagumbao Bark: poultice, apply over wounds.
Leaves: heated & placed over wounds to induce chemical production
Sap:

Cures wounds

Used to cure stomachache

Used to cure ringworms

4. Sobosob Boil the leaves (drink) Disinfectant
Used as “su-ob” while boiling to relieve fever.
5. Guava Leaves (boil)
Leaves (chew)
LBM, Feminine wash & disinfectant
6. Putod Boil the leaves Used as tea for kidney trouble, high blood
7. Cogon Roots (boil) Diarrhea
8. Corn hair Boil Clears urinal passages (UTI)
9. Lemon grass Boil Cleansing
10. Kutsay Leaves macerated Used for skin trauma
11. Bengaw Roots - chewed Toothache
12. Aran bark Bite or insert into tooth cavity Toothache
13. Baing-baing Burned & the ash is applied to wound Wounds
14. Shangda Boil & use water for bathing Postpartum

D.INDIGENEOUS PROTECTION SYSTEMS FOR RESOURCES
Like all the IPs in the Cordillera, the Ibaloy were very protective of their land, their home and their forests. Even before all the Proclamations regarding the use of the forests were issued by the foreign entities and national government, the people were aware of the relationship he had with his natural environment and his role in protecting it.

Transmission and application of these cultural practices ensured that the land and its resources would be there for his children’s children. The collective right of members of the community who used the land and its forests was an intangible part of their culture and tradition. No one had to dictate that to them. Ethnic law was very binding to the peoples.

Data Source - NCIP, Benguet