bokod ban

A. Land Use and Management System

1. Land Use Patterns

a. Payew

The payew is the wetland rice fields of the IP communities of Bokod. It is a status symbol in the sense that before employment in industries became practicable, which generated income to buy rice; only the households with payew can have the luxury of eating rice. At that time, most marriages were brokered in consideration of the possession of wetland rice fields perhaps, due to the fact that however industrious a person would to establish one, very few areas were suitable and available then. A relative shrinkage of rice field-holdings was brought about by partitioning the inheritance to their descendants, thus, have become cramped and ownership limited, but it has remained a treasured family repute thru generations as did the Magangans. Normally, the wetland rice fields are situated along the riparian zones, mostly along the stretch of the Agno River. However, a greater portion of the age-old rice fields have been submerged with the creation the Ambuklao Dam apart from those submerged or destroyed by huge volumes of sedimentation after the earthquake of 1990.

b. Baeng, Dasi or Kabaangan

The baeng (Ibaloi), dasi (Karao) or kabaangan (Kankanaey) is a backyard garden that characterizes the settlement areas of the IP communities of Bokod and elsewhere in Benguet, planted to a variety of fruit trees and other plants of economic value in multi-layered canopies underlain by vegetable crops thus; resembling both the random mix and the multi-story cropping technologies. In 1995, the “Asia Pacific Forum on Agroforestry” has identified this IKSP as indigenous to Benguet, as it was such popularized in existing agroforestry literatures as home lot agroforestry or home gardens by Samuel R. Peñafiel, a DENR Research Specialist in the 1980s.

c. Uma/Dabdab

The uma (common term; Dabdab -Karao) are swidden farms or kaingin situated away from the residences or settlements usually carved along the mountain slopes. These are planted mostly to gabi and camote interspersed by corn, cow peas, beans, etc. In some areas, these are arranged in terraces that showcase the indigenous engineering structures (atol –Ibaloi; pethec -Karao) of the IP community.

d. Kejowan, Ked-chowan

The kejowan (Ibaloi/Kalanguya) or ked-chowan (Karao) is a communal production forest where logs, timber/lumber or fire wood and minor forest products may be gathered, in deference to the protection forests. This displays the land use patterns of the IP community on forest management, zoning the forest types where human activities may be undertaken.

e. Shontog

Shontog is a generic term that refers to the forests, in general. However, it is always used to refer to the protection forests (e.g, shontog ni Ikarao –controlled use or protected forests; bakian na shontog of the Kalanguya -mossy forest), both under limited use, and in deference to the laxity of human use in kejowan (Ibaloi) reinforces the concept of protection forests, which again would define the indigenous zoning of forest types as a land use pattern of the IP community.

f. Patad

A notable characteristic in settlement patterns among the Ibaloi and Kalanguya communities is the sparse distribution of houses, which implies their cultural value of the baeng. Perhaps, it was designed as such to allow for wider spaces of the baeng. However, Poblacion is an exception perhaps attributed to its rapidly urbanizing trend.

Among the Karaos, it may be understandable that their territory is very limited to allow for all their land use patterns to apply. On the other hand, if indeed this community originated from the Mountain Province as their historical account holds, they are certainly inclined (as a matter of ingrained cultural value) to develop a clustered distribution of settlement pattern as do the IP communities out there have been accustomed to adapt as a defense mechanism from attacks during tribal wars.

2. Land Use Plan

Apparently, the land use system of the IP community of Bokod was not based on a land use plan prepared for the purpose rather, were the land use systems passed on to them as a traditional practice by their forebears. The existing practice on land use however, is a blending of the indigenous patterns and conventional practice as introduced by government extension workers, although the traditional patterns are strikingly predominant.

3. Management System/Land Use

a. Individually Managed

Among the four IP communities of Bokod, the management of agricultural land is a responsibility of the household as a whole. Gender sensitivity is a practice unconsciously normal and not stereotyped, so that the members of the household would keep up to their farm work regardless of who was there to perform it. Most agricultural areas are managed by the families that own them.

b. Clan Managed

A closer look at the communal (production) forests of Bokod would show that these are a collection of parcels belonging to certain clans who utilize these areas exclusively to gather their wood needs, thus are basically clan-managed areas. They refer to these as communal forests in the sense that in their land allocation system, it is only in these areas where the community can gather their needs for wood, collectively.

c. Community-Managed

The protection forests are referred to as public forests and are the responsibility of the community to protect. There is no expressed traditional law that prohibits traversing these forests. Although not as much as pejew, gathering of forest products thereon such as wood is very unusual, perhaps, not due to its distance to the settlement areas but plainly because it has become a tradition, that this act would be inciting scorn to anyone that would dare.

B. Land Ownership Systems

1. Type of ownership

a. Individually owned

Individual ownership of agricultural lands among the IP communities of Bokod was known to exist since time immemorial. Perhaps, this is attributed to the fact that these lands have been established and developed by individual families. A notable feature of the individual ownership of lands among the Ibaloi and Kalaguya, is the respect of ownership accorded to the first tiller of the land. Since they allow households who are members of their clan to utilize farm lands that are left idle for some time, the right to first ownership would hold no matter how many layers of subsequent occupants have changed. This becomes more pronounced in the utilization of the uma (swidden) which are left to fallow for 10 years. Sometimes, the owner of an uma may be preoccupied or may have been accustomed to a different income generating activity at the time the same is ready for re-cultivation. In such cases, some families who lack farms to till may ask to utilize the land, which they may do and perhaps pass-on the privilege to another, and so on for periods that could even span a generation, but the ownership of the land would always revert to the original owner. If the original owner had by then passed away, it will be reckoned to his legitimate heirs, thus an inalienable right.

b. Clan owned

This type of ownership mostly holds only in the occupation of the kejowan. Members of a clan may have access gathering wood or forest products from a parcel of land that originally belonged to their forebears.

c. Public/Community owned

This type of ownership basically refers to the public forests which are not owned by either a family or clan but is known to the community as their forests or wilderness areas. To the Karao and Kalanguya, their hunting activities would extend deep into the protection forests in search for the trail of game and their habitats. Confusion has arisen among the IP community when secular law has pronounced under the archipelagic doctrine that all lands belong to the state, the impact of which have been felt by the IP community when government started ejecting them out of their abode and resettling them elsewhere in the country to give way to the establishment of the Ambuklao Dam, as it did with the logging operations of BCI that made them witness the ecological rape of their forests.

2. Modes of acquisition/transfer

a. Tawid

Tawid is a mode of land ownership bestowed by inheritance of the property from parents or ancestors, and would pass-on in the line of ancestry. However, in the event of a marriage with no offspring particularly, when the direct descendant would pass away before the spouse, the property may subsequently be passed on to the next-of-kin of the present possessor thus, was transferred ownership to a relative by affinity.

b. Deked

Deked is a mode of acquiring ownership of land by way of a mortgage. When a mortgagor does not conform to the agreement, the mortgagee would own the land permanently.

c. Salsha/Binbin

Salsha or Binbin is a temporary acquisition of land; a mortgage of land with a rider that the production of land would serve as the interest of the capital amount paid to mortgagor. This arrangement holds for an unlimited time frame that would depend upon the mortgagor to return the amount loaned.

d. Sakasha

Sakasha is another form of land acquisition which actually is an occupation of unoccupied land. In other words, this is clearing new patches of the production forests not otherwise owned, and establishing new farms.

3. Land distribution

Parents would decide the fairness of their children’s share of property inheritance (tawid) where early pronouncements can be made, but the recipient may not take possession or have beneficial use of the property until their parents are still alive. The customs of the Ibaloi relatively recognizes the superiority of the male specie in the management of familial affairs. Thus, when a widow decides to remarry, the properties of the woman which by their traditional practice should be withheld from distribution as inheritance to their orphaned children supposedly until the last parent dies, becomes the property of the new family (including the new husband). More often not, nothing should stand in the way when the new husband decides to sell the properties, and the rest is history.

C. Forest and Watershed Management and Protection

1. Indigenous Systems

Not many would realize the wisdom of old why they would emphasize that the public forests are the dwelling of creatures in the invisible spirit realm (e.g., Mount Pulag is the sky world of their ancestors; the gnomes along the way to the forests would cast punishments at will; or other enchantments, etc.) which basically would reflect their cultural values of the forest environment. A closer scrutiny would tell that they have defined a demarcation for the protection forests to be kept safe from human interference, thus, are protected areas.

For instance, a balite tree is known to outlive other tree species under harsh conditions and could exist for a century. The old folk have very well realized the importance of this tree to ensure a dense vegetative cover thus warned that these trees are sanctuary of the unseen spirits and thus prohibit its cutting under pain of retribution. Isn’t it surprising that local loggers do not dare take the risk!

2. Forest

a. Shontog – natural forest/public forest

Other than sowing the seeds of apprehension in the hearts of individuals in order to keep the value aglow, there is no special physical activity employed to manage the natural forests. Appropriately so, because if held free from human interference, the forest ecosystem is capable of natural regeneration particularly, with the diversity of biota thereon.

b. Kejewan - Indigenous Forest Management Practices in the Kejewan

1. Pidi/Pispis

Pidi or pispis is an indigenous process of forest management employed in the kejewan which is selective cutting of trees to ensure that only harvestable ones are gathered while protecting and giving way for wildlings to grow in order to keep the forest stands well stocked. This resembles the timber stand improvement (TSI) technology of contemporary forestry.

2. Tongil

Tongil means pruning, which is also practiced in indigenous forest management in order to allow the re-growth of new branches. This is employed particularly, when the spacing of young trees is quite dense that a competition for light would leave no lower layers of canopy.

3. Tengshal

Tengshal is the gathering of firewood by cutting matured branches and twigs only to be utilized for fuel wood.

4. Daik

Daik is the establishment of a ground clearing from grasses and weeds that span about 10 meters wide around a specific area of the forest to serve as fire line (pan aspulan ni pool).

3. Flora

Most of the vegetation species within the Bokod Ancestral Domain have been presented in Section 1 Part I-G so that only the indigenous species of flora have been presented here, which include, among others: Adalasa, Atalod, Atelba, Bahal, Bankengey, Damon-damon, Datek, Ebo, Kaybuwan, Kekejew, Kekejew, Kekejew, Kingkitan, Paleshet, Palpal-a, Payepek, Plan, Pulet, Sabbit, Saboy, Sakodati, Senagenga, Shoshop, Taktaday, Wakal-wakal, and Yatjatan.

4. Fauna

Again, the endemic species of fauna have been selected presented here, as follows:
House lizard (karat, batingal); Turtle (kakeb); Monkey (bakes); Snake (uleg); Frog (tukak); Rat (utot); and Monitor Lizard/Baniyas (tilay).

5. Energy Resources

Water is basically the local source of natural energy which abounds in springs, groundwater and aquifers for potable water, while the rivers and creeks provide the source of water for domestic and other uses.

Fuel wood is a practicable local source of energy for cooking and lighting.

Other sources of energy quite untapped are wind and solar energy that is locally available but no indigenous technology is available for their beneficial use.

D. Water Resources Management and Protection

1. Water

The indigenous people of Bokod realize that water is a basic human need and that access to this resource is a basic right. However, due to water abundance in the bygone past, appropriate measures have not been taken to deliberately protect it, particularly against destructive human activities that induce pollution and degradation of the water support systems apart from the forces of nature. Then too, the waterways that provide unlimited supply for domestic need as well as farm needs are fast losing their quality. Only the taboo of the IP community on a fear of displeasing the unseen dwellers of the water source seems to have saved it from perhaps an even worse condition.

The indigenous materials used to tap water is the taroy (Ibaloi); tadoy (Kalanguya); takguad (Karao) which is made out of bamboo or banana stalk used as a drainage for water to transport to impounding structures. Dawas (Ibaloi) is a container made of bamboo used as a vessel to fetch water.
The Palenged is an indigenous system of recognizing the right to, and prioritizing the users of irrigation or water system, which would include the temtem (Karao); Tebteb (Ibaloi) or natural springs. The palenged may be bestowed upon an individual or community but refers only to the priority for users and does not exclude other users who may also depend from the water source albeit reserved on a second priority.

2. Fishing

a. Bengwit/ Dawid

A hook tied to a nylon string with a stick (Alamdi dja etekong waray singil to ematpani say waray mashel ja paeding). Easy to catch fish and without pollutive agents in the fish catch (Legal dja nigay tep eg esabishong tan ayshi metey ja anak ni paideng tan mapteng pay e ikakan so ne too).

b. Balshew

A fish catcher Made up of nylon net (Mapteng ja panikay ni paeding).

c. Salep

A canal to trap a fish through the diversion of water which is an easy way to catch fish.

d. Seka/Ap’jaw

Seka/Ap’jaw is made of bamboo like the size of a litro coke to trap fish and could catch small sized fish.

e. Oral

Oral is a rounded woven basket with opening at top and bottom. The top opening usually covered to trap fishwithin (Esagap taan round ja kawajan jet waray botilan to). This is perhaps the best way of catching fish.

f. Pana with antokos

Pana with antokos is a mechanized tool that functions like bow and arrow and could surely hit the fish target (bawel waray dikeb to tan tepan shima sekep to jet no kedatin ni kewet emelkebi).

3. Nature of Use

Water from the rivers and streams are used for agricultural and industrial purposes, while those from springs serves as the potable water supply of the community.

E. Marine Resource Development

The indigenous way of propagating marine resources is best displayed by keeping their natural habitat intact and undisturbed or unpolluted. However, deliberate efforts to sow fries as did the community by releasing 400 pieces of eels along the stretch of the Agno River would facilitate increasing the population of the marine resources. The establishment of hatcheries in the communities is a borrowed technology adopted and now practiced by the community.

F. Mineral Resources Management and Protection

These concerns have been presented under the policies on Natural Resource Management (supplied to comply with prescribed format).

G. Natural Health Practices

The IP community of Bokod has a wide variety of alternative health care and medicine which include among others: chiropractic remedies, herbal concoctions and specific animal meats and parts, and not outnumbered are the ritual remedies.

Chiropractic remedies are dispensed by the mangidot which are trained by birth to conduct ilot.

Ritual remedies, on the other hand are done by the mambunong or Ibumangi which are mostly based on the belief that the afflictions were inflicted by the spirits or the unseen creatures. In usual cases, the butchering of animal sacrifices are made to appease the disgruntled spirits. Most of these practices have been presented under the discussion on traditional customs and practices. (Appendix 16, A-C)

Some indigenous plant species and their relative uses within the community, which are mostly health remedies are, as follows:

1. Agat Antitusive (for cough)
2. Banaba Regulates vascular problem
3. Bato (malasimang) Antitusive (for cough)
4. Bawang Regulates vascular problem
5. Dawed Antitusive (for cough)
6. Didingey/Shangda Cleansing and antiseptic
7. Eucalyptus Antitusive (for cough)
8. Gipas/Keppas Antitusive (for cough)
9. Kamatis For food poisoning; burns & scalds
10. Lantana Antitusive (for cough)
11. Makabuhay Antitusive (for cough)
12. Oregano Antitusive (for cough)
13. Pine needle Foot deodorant
14. Plan to prevent bleeding
15. Plowel Poultice for Boils
16. Putod-potod For relief of UTI
17. Subosob Antacid (for stomach pain)
18. Takip kuhol For the relief of arthritis
19. Tangan Antitusive (for cough)
20. Tapaja Cleansing

Again, the endemic species of fauna particularly, those used for health remedies have been selected presented here, as follows:

House lizard (karat, batingal) – roasted, pounded, boiled and drank;

Turtle (kakeb) - cook the meat and eat, cures asthma;

Monkey (bakes) - cook the meat and eat, cures asthma;

Snake (uleg) - extract the bile, drink, cures asthma;

Frog (tukak) - cook the meat and eat, cures asthma;

Rat (utot) - cook the meat and eat, cures malaria; and

Monitor Lizard/Baniyas (tilay) - cook the meat and eat, cures malaria.

H. Indigenous Protection Systems for Resources

These concerns have been presented under the traditional practices and also in the policies on Natural Resources Management.



A. Vision


Dugad tayon eka-joan ja kamaptengan ontawitawid ja panteneman, pankankana-an, pansigshan, diteng ja pan-inan, pandagbuan tan gwaray ulnos. Mabeduran e kaugadian ni sahey tan sahey tep gwaray semek son Apo Shiyos.


Dagan ginayuan tayo ontawitawid neyay, waday panteneman, pangagana-an, panpephedan, liteng ni pantaluan, panlagbuan, tan waday ulnos. Mabaldan e kaugalian ni hakey tep waday hemek tayon Apo Dios.


Dugad tayon eka-joan a panmaptengan, ontawitawid a guaray panteneman, panmagancana-an, panshigchan, dething pan iyanan, pandagbu-an tan waray ulnos. Mabenolan e kaugadian na saki tan saki tep guarey semek son Apo Chios.


Daga ay intako natago-an, in-inset ay kamayatan, tumawitawid neyay, waday pan-eskan, panbiagan, pansigdan, ya liteng ay pante-an, pan-ublaan, tan waday ulnos. Maituptop nan ugalin di esa ya esa maipuon sin ayat ken Apo Dios.


A cherished habitation from our forebears improved and developed for planting, making a living and to be a peaceful, healthy and better dwelling for our future generations, where unity and mutual respect of our popular customs and traditions shall prevail with the love of God.

B. Mission

1. Resolve of the Indigenous Peoples Organization


a. Mansaksakey kitajo ja mangimanshal, mengi-ubda ni pan maptengan Shiya dugad ja etawid.

b. Mengitusho say maashal tan maegwatan e kokokip ni kasikuran ja toto-o tan may tenengan e turo i papangulu-an ja mekejo-an e buday tan ugadin kasikuran.

c. Mantungtung say maagwatan eray emin ja ahensiya ni kobidno tan aligwen kobidno tan sotan era mabidbid ja papangulu-an shi dugad ja man solbar ni problema ni umidi may pangkep ni pan sigshan tan pan maptengan jet maydag-an ni kasudatan e tulakan


a. Manhakhakey kitayo ya mangimandal, mengiubla ni pan pehedan diya lugad tayo ya tawid.

b. Maadal tan maawatan e kokogip ni kasigudan ja totoo tan may tenengan e etudo ni papangulu-an tan magayu-an e ugalin kasigudan.

c. Manhahapit say maawatan ni amin na ahensiya ni gobidno tan aliwen gobidno tan hotan ida mabidbid ya papangolu-an diya lugad ni manholbar ni problema ni umili may panngep ni pan pehedan yet may-amagan ni kahulatan ya tulagan.


a. Mansa-saki kiya jo, a mengi-ubda na panmaptengan niya dugad a tawid.

b. Ma-achal say maguathan kokip na yay siguran a toto-o tan may kingelan e turo na papangudu-an a ma-jowanan e buday tan ugadin yay siguran.

c. Mantutungtung say maguathan eray em-iin a ahensiya na kubidno tan not kobidno tan heman ira mebigbigbig a papangodu-an cha dugad a mansolbar na problema na umidi may pangkep na panshigchan, panmaptengan et may amagan na kasudatan e tulagan.


a. Man-esesa tako ay mangitdo ya man amag si pansigdan din ili ay intako tinawid;

b. Iturong tako tan da tako maawatan sin iitaw din inkasigudan ay epegaw dapay tungpalen nan da kanan di nanemneman ay pangisilbi sinan daga ay intako tinawid;

c. Man ngangalat tan ipakaawat tako sinan ahensia di goberno, baken goberno ya din mabigbig ay papangulo ay mangsolsolbar sinan probleman di ili maipapan sinan pansigdan ya progreso nan ili tako dat isulat din pantutulagan.


aTake on a unified effort to lead and work for the good of our ancestral domain;

b. Steer towards full understanding of the visions of the indigenous peoples and heed the counsel of our elders for the care/preservation of our ancestral domain and culture; and

c. Facilitate discussion for the understanding of all agencies of government and non-government and the recognized leaders who provide solutions to the problems of the community regarding community development and progress, and make a documentation of the agreements.

2. Resolve of the Local Government Units (LGUs)


a. Mansaksakey kitajo ja mangimanshal tan mangi-ubda ni pan maptengan shiya dugad ja etawid.

b. Ibalnay ni LGU e panmaptengan say gwaray pan-aagwatan ni tulakan, paamta suni karakdan, pansedodsod suni engashal tan papangudu-an se maunorantan dag-en ira niya IPO, LGU, tan eshom ja ahensiya ni kubidno.


a. Manhakhakey kitayo ya mangimandal tan mangi-ubla ni pan pehedan hiya lugad ya natawid.

b. Ibalnay ni LGU e pan pephedan say waday pan-aawatan ya tulagan, paamta ni kadakelan, pan halodhod huni nan adal tan papangulu-an.


a. Mansa-saki kiya jo a mangimanchal tan mangi-ubda na pan maptengan niya etawid a dugad.

b. Ibalnay na LGU e pan maptengan say guaray pan-a-watan na tulakan, penganta-an erea ma karakdan, panseddosod ira na yan-achal tan pangpangudu-an say ma-unoran e emagen ira niya IPO, LGU, tan echom a ahensiya ni kobidno.


a. Man-uulnos tako ay mangitdo ya man amag si pansigdan din daga ay intako tinawid

b. Sin LGU di mangitdo sinan pansigdan di kaaduan tan mankakaawatan da koma amed sinan pan tutulagan, mangipakaammo sinan kaaduan, makingalat sinan nanemneman ya papangulo tapno siya din annuloten ya iamag din LGU, IPO ya odom ay ahensya di goberno.


a. We unite to lead and work for the good of our ancestral domain; and

b. The LGU will lead for the common good to bridge understanding of agreements, inform the greater number, inquire from the knowledgeable and leaders, in order that the IPO, LGU and other agencies of government may heed and act accordingly.

C. Strategies

1. General Strategy

The approach strategies to effective ADSDPP implementation points to the paramount objectives of protecting the environment and the natural resource base as well as a conservative and judicious utilization of these resources. The overall strategy adopted is based on a concept of an “agriculture and forest ecological zones (AFEZ)” between the remaining primary and/or residual forests and areas of multiple use and human settlements. This is a modification of the “buffer zone” strategy which consists of graduated circles of protection around the agro-forest ecological zones (AFEZ) which generally corresponds to increasing slopes and ecological vulnerability.

Because no amount of fencing could protect the remaining forests from human activities that are deemed destructive and thus threaten its conservation, a “social fencing” strategy becomes an appropriate measure for its protection. Social fencing encompasses a concerted effort among the satellite communities (barangays/sitios) immediately adjacent the forest zones to protect the same areas belonging to them. This comes particularly handy in view of the fact that ownership of the domain exclusively belongs to the indigenous people and the usufruct rights to the utilization of resources therein emanates from them. This right to exclusion further emphasizes the reality that virtually no one but the same village people could care enough to protect their own lands and forest environment.

Unlike the implementation of programs adopting similar strategy in non-IP communities that bestows utilization rights under the concept of stewardship, the resource users, in particular, the forest stewards lack a genuine feeling of the concept of owners thus affects the full integrity of their conservation efforts. More often than not, their domicile is always confronted by misapprehensions that their efforts will only be for naught if the real owners –that is– government would at any time cause their eviction from the place they have fought so hard to protect.

In view of the conventional form of governance (presence of LGUs) already in place and the level of convenience that the community has developed in acculturation thereto without giving off their traditional or customary leadership structures, the integrated approach to community development becomes necessary. For purposes of administrative representation, the indigenous people’s community shall be represented by the Indigenous Peoples Organization (IPO) to co-operate with the local government units. In this way, the IPO shall harmonize their development agenda with the LGUs while the LGUs shall complement the development programs of the IPO, which also applies either way in terms of governance. A clear delineation of roles through a memorandum of agreement however is strongly encouraged.

A working model developed for watershed management zoning in the Palawan Integrated Environmental Plan and was adopted by DENR for CBENRM Project sites in all provinces throughout the Cordillera identifies three levels of use in the buffer zone: 1) restricted use in areas directly around the forest; 2) controlled use at the intermediate area before 3) traditional use areas, referring to upland agriculture and forest products gathering areas.
For ADSDPP, a parallel model was developed with strategies for its implementation in the respective AFEZ zones, as follows:

a. Containment of Resource Use within each AFEZ Zone

The activities that will be allowed in the restricted use areas, controlled use areas and traditional use areas are well defined and planned. Where the boundaries become hazy, the danger of encroachment towards areas needing control and protection would arise. To preclude such instances, the council of elders should intervene to enforce its forest protection policies as may be consistent with the effective implementation of the ADSDPP.

b. Regeneration of Forest Resources

Bokod has barely recovered from an unfortunate experience on the exploitation of its forestlands by logging operators that left behind a depleted resource base. The vegetation that can now be seen in some parts of the residual forests has sprung from natural regeneration as characteristic and typical of pine forest stands. However, a considerable portion has been so degraded while the pioneer species in some areas were not able to restore the biota to its once pristine conditions, which is perhaps attributed to its disturbed physical conditions thus affecting the hydrologic and edaphic structures.

This dreary condition of the environment underscores the immediate need for regeneration. The designation of steeper slopes to regenerative interventions such as reforestation and agroforestry especially assisted natural regeneration (ANR) thus provide the basis for a systematic programming of public resources for this matter.

c. Reduction of Population Pressure

Sufficient evidence and indicators have shown that the perennial threat to further encroachment and deeper penetration into the forests is attributed to upland farming. Shrinkage in farm hectares as a direct result of population growth reduces the size of arable land per inhabitant at the average. The increasing population in need of food resources aggravated by the diminishing productivity levels of existing upland farms presents the rationale for increasing the size of workable farms thus the unabated clearing of new areas in the forest.

In the AFFEZ strategy, emphasis is made on the development of sustainable production systems and livelihood opportunities in traditional use areas and in other settled areas. Rural industries will also be developed primarily focused on an added value on prevailing or to be generated raw materials as well as for providing employment. This will not only contain the population of these areas but will also draw out those who have made new clearings or have already encroached deeper into the forest.

d. Forest Protection

Predisposed by an imprint of witnessing the “ecological rape” of its vast forest lands and ripped off powers to defend or protect it from destructive exploitation, the IP communities of Bokod have virtually been relegated to take on a passive stance on forest protection as may be consistent with its indigenous knowledge systems and practices (IKSP) on natural resources management. Subsequently, with the long denied recognition of their ancestral rights to ownership of their ancestral domain, the people of Bokod can hardly believe that at long last, they can now take hold of a title to their territory as the IPRA provides.

A motivational factor thus envisioned by the ADSDPP for forest protection is the promotion of a strong sense of ownership rights over the forest resource among members of the IP community. Experience would prove that the problem on effective forest protection is too socially ingrained and is beyond solution by the formal enforcement procedures of government. A motivated community, on the other hand, can develop its collective resolve to renew and protect the forest resource base.

The AFEZ concept will thus be implemented as both a physical-spatial and social strategy, where community action is considered a key factor in the effectiveness of the delineated eco-management zones. A precondition however, to effective community involvement is capacitation and empowerment through cultural regeneration and livelihood development. Thus, the interventions are geared towards a two-pronged objective: on human resource and institutional aspects on the one hand and on production-protection on the other.

The development stages of the ADSDPP are guided by the following characteristics:

1st Stage: Human-Income Development which emphasizes cultural regeneration and livelihood development within the high hills (500-1,000 m asl) to low mountain (1,000-1,500 m asl) eco-management zones (< 25% slope);

2nd Stage: Production-Protection Interventions during which integrated agroforestry, forestry and livestock raising is promoted in the mid-mountain (1,500-2,000 m asl) eco-management zones (19-30% slope); and

3rd Stage: Community Buffering and social fencing – where watershed rehabilitation and protection (>2,000 m asl or >30% slope) by the IPO will be intensified and the immediately adjacent communities as stakeholders shall be the guardian of their respective forest areas.

2. Comprehensive Site Development Strategies

a. IPO-LGU Partnership

Consistent with agreements made during the consultative meetings conducted at the outset and emphasized under the Basic Concepts of this ADSDPP preparation, an IPO-LGU partnership shall be encouraged and strengthened. This is deemed necessary if the concept of integration were to be realized.

The relative weakness of the enforcement of customary practices as predisposed by the passive stance of IP communities resulting from long years of deprivation from the free exercise thereof, suggests the assistance of LGUs in co-operation with the IP community for a re-structuring and adoption of institutional measures to recollect if not produce its own environment and natural resources management system.

b. Networking and Linkaging with Other Partners in Development

As tested in several participatory models and adopted in this ADSDPP, the functional areas in which specific institutions very well perform and have been most effective are: GO technical agencies for technology development, promotion and capacitation/training; NGOs for community organizing, credit transfers, capital build-up and training of POs in managing income-generating projects; and POs for development and management of cooperative business enterprises.

The concept of “farmer trainors” found effective in technology transfer to other farmers as practiced in the Upland Development Program (UDP) under the auspices of the FORD Foundation and DENR will be worthwhile to emulate in this ADSDPP. This becomes particularly responsive to the reality that the IP community has IKSP of its own some of which have only to be refined if not modified as the IP community would deem appropriate based on the results of their technology verification. The farmer-trainors skilled with their IKSP could thus effectively transfer the technologies very well adaptable to their cultures, without emphasizing too that their force can augment considerably the existing government extension force because of their number and permanent presence in the area.

c. Project Areas and Beneficiaries

The identification of projects, project sites and communities as made by the ADSDPP-TWG is only the first step towards operationalizing the ADSPP. A more critical step would be the prioritization of household categories in these communities to determine who should be the frontline participants in the project components. With the ADSDPP goals and objectives in view, those who are most dependent on land and the forest/watershed resources for their basic needs would be given priority without prejudice to the highly marginalized basic sectors of society. Corollarily, the households whose aggregate incomes fall within the poverty threshold should also be given priority. These pre-considerations should be done taking into consideration the structures already in place in the communities (e.g., putting up a cooperative where one already exists within reasonable distances, etc.).

With regards to the lands to be developed, it is also assumed that a proper balance between productive use and conservation/protection should be achieved, following the proposed land allocation strategy.

d. Land Allocation for Agro-Environmental Projects

The Bokod ancestral domain is basically a watershed community and a “critical watershed” at that which is a catchment basin that supplies the Ambuklao and Binga Hydroelectric Power Plants within proximate vicinities, and San Roque Hydroelectric Power Plant downstream in San Manuel, Pangasinan. The prevailing heterogeneity among agro-ecological zones thereon has catalyzed the ADSDPP-TWG to delineate a “landscape range” of agriculture and forest ecological zones (AFEZ) as follows:

AFEZ 1 = High Mountain Zone (> 2,000 m asl)
AFEZ 2 = Mid-Mountain Zone (1,500-2,000 m asl)
AFEZ 3 = Low-Mountain Zone (1,000-1,500 m asl)
AFEZ 4 = High Hills Zone (500-1,000 m asl)

Slope gradients covered under each AFEZ include:

Upper Slope = > 50 % slope gradient
Mid-Slope = 25-50 % slope gradient
Bottom Slope = 8-25 % slope gradient
Plateau/Flatland = < 8 % slope gradient

Upon these bases, all areas under AFEZ 1 shall be protection forests that will be preserved for biological diversity, and human activity is strictly prohibited thereon. AFEZ 2 shall also be a protection forest however, gathering of forest products and hunting may be allowed thereon. Some communal forests may also be located in this eco-zone particularly, those that were maintained as such prior to the ADSDPP preparation. AFEZ 3 is the location of production forests (communal forests, plantation forest and agroforestry) while some built-up areas would also exist thereon. AFEZ 4 is preoccupied by built-up areas (settlements, croplands and other land uses).

The land use allocation and development matrix (Figure 6) based on the interactive relationships between the land slopes (which separate the forest lands from the alienable and disposable lands) and the present vegetation/land uses (which illustrates the general ecological framework of the watershed) is shown in Table 65. The table illustrates that two major modules were identified, namely, the Agroforestry modules (on-farm) and the Community-based modules (off-farm).

The farm development modules are formulated separately for the non-agricultural (lands with slopes greater than 25 percent) and agricultural (lands below 25 percent slopes). These provide for the effective integration of the crop-livestock-forestry land use mixes and which would rationalize the viable site allocation schemes for uplands in the ancestral domain.

The off-farm development modules are primarily undertaken by the community as a group as contrasted to the on-farm projects which are mainly implemented by individual farmers. The off-farm development modules are primarily implemented to protect the remaining forests and to enhance the ecology of the remaining watershed. On the other hand, the on-farm development modules are the central strategy to improve the economic situation of the upland settlers in order to minimize, if not totally control the further encroachment of the forest ecosystems. The off-farm project sites, in general, are abandoned and marginalized lands that require rehabilitation and development by the community because of its expensive and supra-zonal effects over the environments of the watershed. On the other hand, the on-farm projects are land areas which are settled or inhabited and are being used by the indigenous community for their food needs primarily and for cash augmentation in some situations.

Target Areas and Beneficiaries of On-Farm and Off-Farm Agroforestry Activities
Domain wide 48,830 296.9 489 615 207 -
Ambuklao 7,500.00 3 4 7 2 -
Bila 2,240.00 16.4 10 26.4 7 -
Bobok-Bisal 9,470.00 12 16 28 5 -
Daclan 1,580.00 40 20 60 16 50
Ekip 2,080.00 12 17 29 5 -
Karao 1,930.00 24 20 44 10 -
Nawal 4,520.00 76.1 230 306.1 48 -
Pito 8,420.00 12.5 10 22.5 5 -
Poblacion 6,440.00 37 27 64 15 -
Tikey 4,650.00 20 8 28 8 -
Target Areas for Reforestation  
Ambuklao 23 10 33
Bila 35 20 55
Bobok-Bisal 190 50 240
Daclan 136 10 146
Ekip 125 70 195
Karao 123 35 158
Nawal 50 80 130
Pito 130 70 200
Poblacion 117 116 233
Tikey 531 75 606
TOTAL 1460 536 1996

e. Land Allocation for Forest Rehabilitation

While agroforestry development aims to meet a two-pronged objective, -that is- food production and ecological stability with wood production as a value added benefit, reforestation on the other hand, which follows the off-farm development set-up puts ecological stability foremost among its objectives. The value-added benefit of reforestation in production areas would be the wood supply derived from it apart from the underlying objective of ecological stability. Table 66 shows the rehabilitation targets for the next five years.

The support projects consist of social, economic and technological interventions which will make the entire short and long term efforts of the farmers more realistic and would be able to encourage the farming communities to adopt farming systems that are sustainable under their respective ecological environments.

f. Research and Development

Participatory approach to research shall be employed in order that the community may realize and thus appreciate its value. This also precludes the apparent lack of technology transfer mechanisms on valuable results of research conducted.

1. Biophysical Research

a. Indigenous technologies

All IKSP on environment and natural resources management, agriculture, soil and water conservation and management, mining, infrastructure, ethhnobotany, alternative medicine, etc. shall be appropriately documented for technology transfer to other IP communities within the Bokod ancestral domain

b. Borrowed Technologies

Some IP communities throughout the country exhibit various IKSP that were found feasible and sustainable by modern technology (e.g., alternate cropping, mix cropping, multi-story cropping, contour farming) thus were introduced through programs of various government agencies including other technologies that have been modified if not at all non-IP inspired. Therefore, borrowed technologies on environment and natural resources management, agriculture, soil and water conservation and management, mining, infrastructure, ethhnobotany, alternative medicine, etc., particularly those that have already been introduced and practiced within the ancestral domain shall be identified, examined and verified of its suitability and adaptability.

c. Emerging Technologies

Technology verification through farm-based crop trials gives farmers a firsthand experience on the economics of alternative technologies and management schemes as basis of decision-making particularly for market-oriented scale of production. Some relatively new technologies that have no known adverse effect and have become practicable to ensure quality products shall also be verified of its sustainability (e.g., contour farming, (SALT I, II & III); tissue culture, etc.) and if found feasible shall be encouraged for further adoption within the domain.

Land Use Allocation Matrix

Present Land Use <= 8 Percent 8 -18 Percent 18 –38 Percent 38-58 Percent >58 Percent
Annuals and Perennial Intensive Agricultural Development Upland Agricultural Development Agro forestry Module 1
30% - Food
50% - Fruits
20% - Forests
Agro forestry Module 2
30% - Food
20% - Fruits
50% - Forests
Agro forestry Module 3
20% - Food
30% - Fruits
50% - Forests
Coconuts Multi – Storey Cropping Multi – Storey Cropping

Agro forestry Module 4

Agro forestry Module 5
Agro forestry
Development Scheme
Agro forestry
Development Scheme
Agro forestry
Development Scheme
Grassland with Agricultural (Settled Areas) Intensive Agricultural Development Agri- Livestock Development Agro forestry Module 1
30% - Food
50% - Fruits
20% - Forests
Agro forestry Module 2
30% - Food
20% - Fruits
50% - Forests

Agro forestry Module 3

30% - Fruits
70% - Forests

Grassland without Agricultural crops) Agri-Livestock Development Agri- Livestock Development Community Based
Community Based
Community Based
Scrubland with Agricultural (Settled Areas) Intensive Agricultural Development Agri- Livestock Development Agro forestry Module 1
30% - Food
50% - Fruits
20% - Forests
Agro forestry Module 2
30% - Food
20% - Fruits
50% - Forests

Agro forestry Module 3

30% - Fruits
70% - Forests

Scrubland with Agricultural Crops) Agri-Livestock Development Agri- Livestock Development Community Based
Community Based
Community Based
Forest Lands with Agricultural (Settled Areas) Communal
Fuel wood Production And Development
Fuel wood Production And Development
Community Based Forest Productivity Enhancement – Development Schemes
30%- Fruit Trees
70 % - Forest Trees
Forest Lands
(No Settlement)
Fuel wood Production And Development
Fuel wood Production And Development
Community Based Forest Productivity Enhancement – Development Schemes
30%- Fruit Trees
70 % - Forest Trees

Land Use Allocation and Development Scheme by Slope Condition

d. Commercial Technologies

The introduction of commercial technologies (e.g., orchards, industrial tree farms, hybrid varieties of crops, livestock, etc., including natural products produced in quantities of commercial scale) is encouraged particularly, for market-oriented ventures, if the IP community would feel the need but an attendant research component will be made a built-in requirement to preclude if not mitigate any adverse effect not quite predicted at the time of its inception.

2. Educational, Social and Cultural Research

a. Socio-Economic Surveys

Socio-economic surveys shall be employed to appraise the spatial and temporal conditions obtaining from time to time and to establish the relative beneficial impacts of development intervention measures introduced in the community (e.g., number of households that have left the poverty threshold after introduction of pump-priming activities). The minimum basic needs (MBN) approach employs a tool developed based on the human development index that scales the basic human needs, quite a familiar instrument to extension workers, and which shall be used therein.

b. Schools of Living Tradition

Part of the reasons for the diminishing adaptability of IKSP is the laborious effort entailed that at times do not seem to reward (i.e., time and cost of producing rice wine when a bottle of gin would cost a measly P20.00 or weaving a traditional apparel when ready-to-wear signature clothes would only cost P100.00, etc.). In order to preserve the cultural value of these time-tested practices particularly, at a time when the skilled hands would soon pass away, conducting a school of living traditions becomes necessary. In this way, the participants will be assisted to learn the crafts and improve their skills while making a living. Underlying the pronounced objective however, shall be the exposure of the participant to a forum where each one could bring out the abundance of his/her creative impulse in order to perpetuate the art and culture of the IP community.

Complementing these methods shall be the research activities as may be conducted by the academe or other research institutions.

D. Goals

1. Cultural Development

a. Revitalization and protection of our cultural identity as IP communities of Bokod, Benguet bridging the gap for the full appreciation of our cultural landscape, traditions, arts and indigenous knowledge systems and practices to be understood and appreciated not only by our own people but also our neighbors and the world over.

2. Social Development

a. A well-educated youth developed to become fully integrated individuals, scientifically literate and technically competent to assume dynamic and responsible leadership of our ancestral domain; willing and able to respond to the development challenges for improvement of man’s wellbeing and the quality of life and environment;

b. A living condition where there can be: a child who did not necessarily die, a disease that did not spread, medications and health remedies are made accessible to everyone without reservations, and enjoyment of the full essence of human health and environment; and

c. Unity, cooperation and respect for the rule of law in order to protect the general welfare of the community.

3. Economic Development

a. Equitable access to income opportunities and raised income levels of community members, and reduced magnitude of families within the threshold of poverty; and

b. Food security and raised production outputs of other commodities to levels that could compensate for any deficiency in the production of staple food.

4. Physical/Environmental Development

a. Sustainable and optimal use of various land resources and;

b. Regenerated residual forests and watershed areas; Soil and water conserved to ensure a clean water supply in the waterways and river channels for farm and domestic use; and

c. Restored the pristine conditions of the environment as enjoyed half a century ago by the IP community, and install effective and efficient solid waste management system.

5. Institutional Development

a. Develop programs and responsive interventions for the development and progress of the Bokod Ancestral Domain;

b. Competent and capable human resources of the IP communities;

c. Adequate infrastructure, facilities and utilities;

d. Moral regeneration and respect of the basic social and political institutions that uphold community cooperation, unity and cohesion within our ancestral domain; and

e. Reinforced areas of cooperation and complementation in order to ensure the full participation of all the basic sectors of our society in governance and local democracy.

Data Source - NCIP, Benguet