n earlier times, “land ownership” was not permanent. What the people then considered as property were animals, although they utilize the land for food production, for feeding animals and home use, and for grazing and hunting. But after several generations, the problem related to grazing areas surfaced within the domain. Animals of one village mingle with the animals of another village, resulting in loss and disappearance of the foraging animals, and confusion and animosity among the villages. Thus the domain was subdivided and each village was assigned a mountain/area. This was the advent of communal forest. Each village then had a particular area and made “kulogs” (deep canal) to define the boundaries. Grazing, hunting and cultivation became confined to a particular domain.

Eventually, when the kulogs could no longer confine the animals and other agricultural activities, individuals resorted to backyard pigpen and backyard cultivation. The land becoming an individual property; each started staking areas of land within the domain as his property. Consequently, settlement became permanent.

After an individual staked an area of land, the Buguias people maintained the land through making their own kulogs or by fencing it. The fence may be of seasoned pinewood or planted I-ilog or shrub (a shaft or stem may be planted and take root). The fence protects each individual stake from scavenging animals and serves as an assertion proprietorship. Through time and continued utilization, the community accepted and recognized each other’s stake of land. This parcel of land then is passed on to the children as inheritance. The succeeding generations thus were responsible for taking care of and nurturing the domain and all its wealth. As the family grew, more improvements were made for the eventual use of the children.