D. Water Resources Management and Protection

The protection and management of water resources by the IPs in Tublay, both Ibaloys and the Kankanaeys are anchored on their belief that there are spirits (“egma- sas” or “tinmungaw” or “temengaw”) residing in all sources and bodies of water. This belief automatically prevents any body to do destructive activities that will menace the water source and the aquatic life within it. Nobody is allowed to wash acidic and salty maters within the water source hence, it is believed that these chemicals will drive away the spirits guarding the spring or water source and this could cause the drying up of the source.

Usually when an individual IP crosses bodies of water, he/she throws a piece of stone at the same time says a “madmad” (prayer) asking the spirits to get out from his/her path.

To give due respect to the unseen spirits that are believed to be residing in the sources and bodies of water, they are given “Betang” (a piece of meat with gabi) during cañao. An offering or share of the spirits guarding the springs or water source accompanied with “madmad” of giving thanks and asking for good health.

Fishing is allowed during tiagew (dry season) when the fish are not pregnant. Fishing techniques applied are “salep” (dry up portion of the river by diverting the water in one direction), “baniit”, “kapkap”(with use of hands), “doydoy/sagasha” (fish net), “tavukol” basket like that traps the fish) and “silag” (fishing during night time). The catch is only for home consumption.
For irrigation system, they use “kulukol” (ditch), “taroy”, or “talak” (bamboo). For potable water they use taroy or talak. Sources of potable water were usually surrounded by stonewalls with fence to protect it from stray animals and or from the “pastol” (pasture).

For both tribes in Tublay, the destruction of the trees, boulders and whatever is in the water resources would cause the spirits to dry up this water.