F. Indigenous mutual help system

Ammoyo or bayanihan

In order to finish the agricultural work faster the people practice the ammoyo system. This is done by pautang (exchange or loan), in which an individual goes to a neighbor’s rice fields to help in the work. When it is time for thi to do his own planting or harvesting, the individuals for whome he rendered service come to his fields to work. They can hasten completion of the agricultural tasks as a farmer can gather 50 to 100

Traditional agricultural practices involves mutual cooperation and reciprocal labor. The people practice aduyon where a field owner asks others for help in his field, whether it is land clearing, planting, weeding or harvesting. In most cases, the field owner feeds those who work in his field. If he does not, he will have to reciprocate by doing work in the fields of those who helped him. Although he does not pay the workers, he is obligated to feed them. As a sign of reciprocity, he also works in the other people’s fields. According to the people, aduyon is like a debt which has to be repaid not necessarily by working in the fields but by helping carry harvest like bananas from the field to the house or helping in house construction.

As previously discussed, the indigenous mutual help systems practiced are gamal and aduyon. These practices ensure that the field owner has manpower to be able to harvest or clear his fields in a shorter period. Other activities where these are used are in house construction, building irrigation canals or carrying wood.

Gamal differs slightly from aduyon in that the field owner does not have to repay in terms of labor. However, he is obligated to feed those who work in his field. Usually, the field owner butchers a pig or a dog for the people’s lunch. People can finish the work in a day. This practice is still handed to the young but it is slowly fading because people now have the means to pay one’s labor


This is done when an individual likes to take something in kind instead of a day’s wage or makes it as a form of tulong or assistance to the farmer employer whi in turn would return the favor through the tulong or pautang system. For instance, if an individual who comes to work harvests three bundles of palay in a day, the rice field owner takes two bundles and gives him one bundle as his wage. This is still practices until now by a few young farmers.