Forest and Watershed Management and Protection 1. Indigenous Systems Not many would realize the wisdom of old why they would emphasize that the public forests are the dwelling of creatures in the invisible spirit realm (e.g., Mount Pulag is the sky world of their ancestors; the gnomes along the way to the forests would cast punishments at will; or other enchantments, etc.) which basically would reflect their cultural values of the forest environment. A closer scrutiny would tell that they have defined a demarcation for the protection forests to be kept safe from human interference, thus, are protected areas. For instance, a balite tree is known to outlive other tree species under harsh conditions and could exist for a century. The old folk have very well realized the importance of this tree to ensure a dense vegetative cover thus warned that these trees are sanctuary of the unseen spirits and thus prohibit its cutting under pain of retribution. Isn’t it surprising that local loggers do not dare take the risk! 2. Forest a. Shontog – natural forest/public forest Other than sowing the seeds of apprehension in the hearts of individuals in order to keep the value aglow, there is no special physical activity employed to manage the natural forests. Appropriately so, because if held free from human interference, the forest ecosystem is capable of natural regeneration particularly, with the diversity of biota thereon. b. Kejewan - Indigenous Forest Management Practices in the Kejewan 1. Pidi/Pispis Pidi or pispis is an indigenous process of forest management employed in the kejewan which is selective cutting of trees to ensure that only harvestable ones are gathered while protecting and giving way for wildlings to grow in order to keep the forest stands well stocked. This resembles the timber stand improvement (TSI) technology of contemporary forestry. 2. Tongil Tongil means pruning, which is also practiced in indigenous forest management in order to allow the re-growth of new branches. This is employed particularly, when the spacing of young trees is quite dense that a competition for light would leave no lower layers of canopy. 3. Tengshal Tengshal is the gathering of firewood by cutting matured branches and twigs only to be utilized for fuel wood. 4. Daik Daik is the establishment of a ground clearing from grasses and weeds that span about 10 meters wide around a specific area of the forest to serve as fire line (pan aspulan ni pool). 3. Flora Most of the vegetation species within the Bokod Ancestral Domain have been presented in Section 1 Part I-G so that only the indigenous species of flora have been presented here, which include, among others: Adalasa, Atalod, Atelba, Bahal, Bankengey, Damon-damon, Datek, Ebo, Kaybuwan, Kekejew, Kekejew, Kekejew, Kingkitan, Paleshet, Palpal-a, Payepek, Plan, Pulet, Sabbit, Saboy, Sakodati, Senagenga, Shoshop, Taktaday, Wakal-wakal, and Yatjatan. 4. Fauna Again, the endemic species of fauna have been selected presented here, as follows: House lizard (karat, batingal); Turtle (kakeb); Monkey (bakes); Snake (uleg); Frog (tukak); Rat (utot); and Monitor Lizard/Baniyas (tilay). 5. Energy Resources Water is basically the local source of natural energy which abounds in springs, groundwater and aquifers for potable water, while the rivers and creeks provide the source of water for domestic and other uses. Fuel wood is a practicable local source of energy for cooking and lighting. Other sources of energy quite untapped are wind and solar energy that is locally available but no indigenous technology is available for their beneficial use.