1. Land Use Patterns
The payew is the wetland rice fields of the IP communities of Bokod. It is a status symbol in the sense that before employment in industries became practicable, which generated income to buy rice; only the households with payew can have the luxury of eating rice. At that time, most marriages were brokered in consideration of the possession of wetland rice fields perhaps, due to the fact that however industrious a person would to establish one, very few areas were suitable and available then. A relative shrinkage of rice field-holdings was brought about by partitioning the inheritance to their descendants, thus, have become cramped and ownership limited, but it has remained a treasured family repute thru generations as did the Magangans. Normally, the wetland rice fields are situated along the riparian zones, mostly along the stretch of the Agno River. However, a greater portion of the age-old rice fields have been submerged with the creation the Ambuklao Dam apart from those submerged or destroyed by huge volumes of sedimentation after the earthquake of 1990.
b. Baeng, Dasi or Kabaangan
The baeng (Ibaloi), dasi (Karao) or kabaangan (Kankanaey) is a backyard garden that characterizes the settlement areas of the IP communities of Bokod and elsewhere in Benguet, planted to a variety of fruit trees and other plants of economic value in multi-layered canopies underlain by vegetable crops thus; resembling both the random mix and the multi-story cropping technologies. In 1995, the “Asia Pacific Forum on Agroforestry” has identified this IKSP as indigenous to Benguet, as it was such popularized in existing agroforestry literatures as home lot agroforestry or home gardens by Samuel R. Peñafiel, a DENR Research Specialist in the 1980s.
The uma (common term; Dabdab -Karao) are swidden farms or kaingin situated away from the residences or settlements usually carved along the mountain slopes. These are planted mostly to gabi and camote interspersed by corn, cow peas, beans, etc. In some areas, these are arranged in terraces that showcase the indigenous engineering structures (atol –Ibaloi; pethec -Karao) of the IP community.
d. Kejowan, Ked-chowan
The kejowan (Ibaloi/Kalanguya) or ked-chowan (Karao) is a communal production forest where logs, timber/lumber or fire wood and minor forest products may be gathered, in deference to the protection forests. This displays the land use patterns of the IP community on forest management, zoning the forest types where human activities may be undertaken.
Shontog is a generic term that refers to the forests, in general. However, it is always used to refer to the protection forests (e.g, shontog ni Ikarao –controlled use or protected forests; bakian na shontog of the Kalanguya -mossy forest), both under limited use, and in deference to the laxity of human use in kejowan (Ibaloi) reinforces the concept of protection forests, which again would define the indigenous zoning of forest types as a land use pattern of the IP community.
A notable characteristic in settlement patterns among the Ibaloi and Kalanguya communities is the sparse distribution of houses, which implies their cultural value of the baeng. Perhaps, it was designed as such to allow for wider spaces of the baeng. However, Poblacion is an exception perhaps attributed to its rapidly urbanizing trend.
Among the Karaos, it may be understandable that their territory is very limited to allow for all their land use patterns to apply. On the other hand, if indeed this community originated from the Mountain Province as their historical account holds, they are certainly inclined (as a matter of ingrained cultural value) to develop a clustered distribution of settlement pattern as do the IP communities out there have been accustomed to adapt as a defense mechanism from attacks during tribal wars.