Water Resource and Watershed Management
At present, most residents have access to public water facilities. However, other families, especially those in far-flung areas, still depend on the old source, the springs. In the past, containers lawas/dawas and the patiw/paktiw (made of bamboos) and the calamba and salaw (a pot made from clay) were used in fetching water.
The ICCs of Kapangan believe that water is gift that must be shared equally. The locals observe different taboos that when neglected, which are all believed to cause the drying of the water source. First, there should be no disputes regarding water. Secondly, it is a taboo to catch eels or crabs in springs. It is believed that these are charmed or sacred. Thirdly, one who has just given birth may not bathe nor wash near the water source. Fourthly, it is a taboo to wash the things used by someone who has just died on the source. Lastly, it is a taboo to cut trees near the springs. However, this has a quite different explanation. According to the beliefs of the people, spirits inhabit “enchanted trees” within water sources. Therefore, cutting these trees down would anger the spirits that would eventually result to the drying of the source. Among these “enchanted trees” are the tuai or tewe/tewel (Bischofia javanica), balete, alumit, pakawan, ballay/baday, liwliw/diwdiw, and lupting/dupting.
There is also a practice observed in order to prevent the spring from drying up. This is done by a local priest or an elder. He does it by bringing a sex organ of a female pig and then saying a prayer.