1. Wells and Irrigation Systems

Houses of settlers were built near springs and creeks/rivers for easy access to water. In the past, an irrigation system was constructed by diverting water from the river or creek to pass through a canal (bagan) towards the rice fields. When the terrain does not allow it, a water duct (taducan) is made with the use of dinted pine trunk or tebanglan (punapu) a native wild fern plant, to connect the irrigation canals.

Members of the community do the construction through the albubu or bayanihan system, in which members of the community were obliged to render free labor in the construction and maintenance of the diversion dam (saep) or the irrigation system (colocol) and canals. Through the albubu, they likewise assist in the land preparation and planting of rice up to their harvest.

Wells and springs are the main source of community domestic water supply. Open wells were dug up in the springs where the settlers fetch water. Since domestic animals, like pigs, chicken, dogs and cattle, roam freely (bolos), the settlers learned to protect their wells with stakes, wood and branches. Some residents also planted dengao a native herb around the well to ward off snakes. When a community well is finished, it is further protected against animals, erosions, falling and decomposing leaves and destruction through a kabite (stone wall) and wood covering. Water exits and made from bamboo or banana stalk.

After the completion of a project or a major repair of an irrigations system, the community performs the rite of guyod. Usually, a mother pig is butchered and offered by the mambunong. The purpose of the ritual is for the water run smoothly in the canal that was constructed, and a continuous flow of water from the spring. However, the butchering of animals is not allowed near a spring well for the belief that the spring would dry up. Likewise, taking a bath at the community spring was strongly prohibited. It was a belief that when water source is fouled, the well or spring dries up. Incidentally, this practice prevents the contamination of the water source, both for irrigation and for domestic consumption.

Irrigation systems and wells belong to the community. Everybody can avail of them as long as s/he and her/his family helped in the construction and maintenance of the structures. The elders and the community would rebuke a person found deliberately destroying community wells or irrigation systems. If the perpetrator is a family man, he is ordered by the elders to bring out a bogsit (jar) of rice wine for the mambunong to obtain a cupful of the wine and say a customary prayer (bayos) so that the perpetrator will not repeat the act or else harm will come to him.