2. Forest Management In the past, watershed and forest management for the indigenous people are inseparable. Likewise, forest and watershed management was a practice observed since time immemorial, with the concept of “paniyew” (sacred prohibition) as the foremost guide. The ancient people, being strongly animist, believed that the forest is the home of many spirits who are either benevolent or malevolent. The ancients did not have names for each of the spirits, but they are generally the amamotting or bibbiyew and the temenngaw or tinmengaw, which dwell on trees, caves, springs, and any part of the forest, and who could cause good production or loss of forest resources. These spirits could also manifest in many forms. They should neither be disturbed nor hurt. Else, the ill consequences might be sickness or anything evil to befall upon the reprobate. The indigenous people regarded the forest as a source of livelihood and a foraging area for their animals. They therefore had to maintain the balance that is associated with the conservation and preservation of the forest. With these views and beliefs, forest management was an indigenous value and practiced in many aspects and processes. With their belief in paniyew, the ancestors were careful in cutting down a tree and in doing earthwork such as making the kulog (deep canal). They had to ask permission and warn the spirits to move out because a tree is to be fallen down or a stone is to be moved. A ritual is done before doing work in the forest as gesture of asking permission. This clearly indicates that wanton destruction is a taboo for them. Elam (greed) is greatly abhorred by the spirits. Because of the paniyew, they were never greedy; they only took what was needed from the forest and cleared only what was needed for cultivation. Erosions are their main problem for the grazing and scavenging animals and had to be contained. Trees like I-ilog are planted on eroded areas or places prone to it. On their grazing areas, they had to provide shades for their animals and where there was none, they planted trees. There are trees like the api-it valued most for its usefulness; but the ancients were selective in cutting them. It is clear, that even those days when trees were abundant, reforestation was practiced. The Kankanaey ancestors knew that the watersheds were associated with the forest. They knew that spring gust out only from forested areas. Trees called tebe, according to them, are the source of water and should never be cut down. They are also abodes of spirits. They were very strict even to the point that the pollution of a spring, rolling a stone and similar acts are paniyew. Waterholes and springs were segregated so that there were for animals and another for human and spirits to use. These are examples of indigenous forest conservation practices. There is no oral account of any violation of forest conservation practices. However, later annals of Buguias municipality (around three generations ago) maintained that when one is found to have burned the forest or to have caused the destruction of the kulog, he should provide the food and tapey (rice wine) for those who contained the fire and/or fixed the alad or kulog.