3. Communal Forest

In the past, the indigenous people maintained their communal forests, as evidenced by some existing manmade kulogs and stories associated with them. The kulogs were made for the confinement of foraging animals and hunting ground area. The kulog was not merely for utility but for forest management as well. The people have internalized the importance of sustaining the forest resources. They utilized the forest resources carefully according to their needs in the following manner:

Fuel Source and Lighting: The pine tree was the main fuel source. It was abundant then. Seasoned pine (saleng), with a highly combustible resin, serves as torch for general purpose even during nocturnal activities such as hunting, social functions, and domestic illumination.

Source of timber and building materials: Pine timber and tibanglan were used for house building. Palayyen was also be used for tool handles and other applications.

Buguias forest is the sanctuary of wild life, resident and migratory birds. The settlers hunted the birds and wildlife. The ancients harvested and utilized other resources, but all the above indicate that they really regard the forest as life sustenance.