B. Land Ownership Systems

Traditional land ownership involved a sharing system between the “baknangs” and their kin that guaranteed mutual responsibilities for the land, the produce and the animals. (Footnote the cultural fallout by Ruth Alcantara).

Under the Ibaloy custom, the land was the property of the person who worked it first, except forestland, which though restricted in certain areas, was communally owned. (Discussed in detail in forest management). Under the kankanaey custom, accounts related that an ibadoy in palew, pointed out a parcel of land to which they (kankanaey) would inhabit, which is located in Ambassador, of which to date, their populace increased.

For the Ibaloys, “tawid” (inheritance) is the common distribution of property to the children. A bigger portion is given to the youngest child with the condition that he/she is expected to stay with the parents and take care of them. “Ita-kem sha si nanang tan tatang sha”. Same with the Kankanaeys.

It is true with the kankanaeys in tubday, “tawid “ (inheritance) is the manner of ownership. However, land transfer within the family follows some specific form. The eldest and the youngest members of the family get a wider portion of the land. The educated member of the family gets lesser part of the inheritance than the uneducated.

For the Ibaloys, modes of acquisition is in any of the following:

Dagbo – a form of payment for labor.

Daho – lots are being sold to relatives or to the other residents of the barangay.

Salsha or Salsha-tungkal – a form of acquiring land through an agreement with the involvement of money. The first agreement is through “salsha”, after sometime, it will be considered sold if the borrower was not able to pay back the amount on the time frame agreed.

Sa-dat ni nay uhat - Form of land acquisition, in cases of death where in the family concern cannot provide animals or materials to be used in performing the rituals, a family kin or any individual within the community is asked to give what is needed (“mangi uhat”) such as animals to be butchered or any other materials to be used for the death ritual, with the lot of the dead person as payment.

“Sinadat” (Barter) – expensive farming equipment like “bareta”, “pala”, “arasho” and animals are being bartered with a piece of land.

“Kinaba” – a piece of land declared by an individual as his own hence he was the very first who introduced improvements and developments. These serve as proof of ownership. The more industrious the IP is, the more he can have “kinaba”.

As for the kankanaeys of Tubday, they acquire their lands through the following modes:

lnobla/pinanad. The first to work or settle on a vacant piece of land gets to own the land. And proofs of ownership are improvements and developments the owner has introduced into the land. These include fencing and building canals for a pastureland and terracing for rice fields.

lnsukat or lnbalintan. This is a barter system through which a piece of land may be exchanged for an animal or another piece of land.

Tawid. This is an unwritten customary law governing succession of properties. It is, in other words, an inheritance system.

Gisda/Gisseng. A lending agreement under which a piece of land becomes the collateral for an amount of money borrowed. Under the agreement, the land is considered sold if the borrower cannot return the money on the agreed time.

Pugo. This refers to selling lands in cash.

Salda/benben. This is a type of loan, which needs a witness. Both parties usually seal their transaction with a cup of tapey or rice wine. Priority for the loan is the nearest kin and neighbors if nobody from the kin will get it.

H. Indigenous Protection Systems for Resources

The most effective resources protection system done by the IPs was the inculcation of respect and obedience to elders. It is because the elders in accordance with their norms, costumes and traditions were setting rules. Oral transmission of knowledge in accordance with well understood cultural principles, and rules regarding secrecy and sacredness that govern the management of knowledge were some of the strategies.

Development includes interalia, the provision of social and physical infrastructures, the provision of financial services and small medium enterprises activities as well as agriculture and natural resource management. The conclusion is that programs to reduce rural poverty must be anchored comprehensive and, must include the views of the ICCS/IPs and the actions of Local Government Units.

Taking into consideration a holistic approach to development, these relevant inputs from the stakeholders particularly the IPs/ICCs consultations, synthesizes a broad development network anchored on the prevailing IKSP of the IPS/ICCs of Tublay.

As the ICCs/IPs of Tubday are regarded as one of the vulnerable sector of society, they differ significantly in terms of culture, identity, economic systems, and social institutions, as a whole they most often reflect specific disadvantage in terms of social indicators, economic status, and quality of life. Indigenous peoples often are not able to participate equally in development processes and share in the benefits of development, and often are not adequately represented in national social, economic, and political processes that direct development.

As ICCs/ IPs of Tubday they have developmental aspirations. However, they may not benefit from development programs designed to meet the needs and aspirations of dominant populations, and may not be given the opportunity to participate in the planning of such development. It is in this context that this ADSDPP Formulation afforded the ICCs/IPs of Tubday to participate in and benefit from development equally with other fragments of society, and have a role and be able to participate in the design of development interventions that affect them.

This Development Plans and Programs addresses such dilemma in recognizing the conditions and issues of the ICCS/IPs and identifying measures toward satisfying their needs and aspirations. These Plans and Projects focuses on the ICCs/ IPs participation in development and mitigation of undesired effects of development. It is through this planning approach that empowered them to actively participate in the development process of the ADSDPP formulation.

G. Natural Health Practices

The uses of herbal and botanical plants for medicines were practiced since immemorial and it was carried up to the present. But due to the introduction of processed synthetic medicine, users are shifting to it. Nevertheless, the IPs of Tublay even up to the present practices some of these health practices being done before.

Uses of herbal, botanical plants and insects for medicine

  • Red ant (angiyawan) – for toothache. Fry and pulverize then put inside the aching tooth.
  • Bekkeng – for toothache.
  • Uling (Charcoal) – for stomach ache. Pulverized and mixed it with water and drink.
  • Coconut shell – for wounds or for those who are newly circumcised. Pulverized the dried coconut shell then apply to the wounds.
  • Kigis, guava shoots, sapsap shoots – for wounds.
  • Cogon grass roots – for kidney problems.

There were numbers of herbal and botanical plants used as medicines by the old IPs of Tublay, which are at present found in the book published as herbal medicines. Other natural health practices are the use of urine as disinfectant. It is applied directly to the open wounds. The mother breast milk is good for sore eyes. Hilot is usually done to hasten body or muscle pain.

During child bearing/birth, the mother is given boiled dried seeds of wing beans as coffee. Generally, a native chicken is butchered mixed with ginger and papaya is served to the mother to induce breast milk for the newly born baby. The IPs uses a piece of sharp bladed bamboo to cut the umbilical cord of the baby to avoid infection.

Several of the IPs shared their observation that people before have longer and healthier life. According to their testimonies, it is because foods before are chemical and pesticide free. No ingredients and preservatives mixed in their food. Medicines used were not synthetic.